Afterwards, the membranes were washed and incubated with a second

Afterwards, the membranes were washed and incubated with a secondary antibody against rabbit or mouse IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (Cell Signaling,

MA, USA) for 1 h, followed by washing and transferring into ECL solution (Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany), and exposed to X-ray film. Treatment with p38 isoforms, p53 and FOXO3a small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) For the transfection procedure, cells were seeded in 6-well or 96-well culture plates in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% FBS (no antibodies), grown to 60% confluence, and p38 MAPK isoforms Ro 61-8048 α, β, p53, FOXO3a and control siRNAs were transfected using the lipofectamine 2000 reagent according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, Lipofectamine 2000 was incubated with see more Opti-MEM medium (Invitrogen, CA, USA) for 5 min, mixed with siRNA (up to 70 nM), and incubated for 20 min at RT before the mixture was added to cells. After culturing for up to 30 h, the cells were washed and resuspended in fresh media in the presence or absence of BBR for an additional 24 h for all other experiments. Cell apoptosis assays Cell apoptosis was analyzed with Annexin V-FITC/PI Apoptosis Detection Kit (BestBio, Shanghai, China) according to instructions from the manufacturer.

Briefly, after treated with BBR for 24 h, Tideglusib the apoptotic cells were harvested by Trypsin (no EDTA) and washed with PBS, then resuspended the cells in 500 μL binding buffer, Org 27569 5 μL Annexin V-FITC regent and 10 μL PI regents and incubated for 5 min at RT in the dark, followed by detecting cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. In parallel experiment, Hoechst 33258 staining was used to further analyze cell apoptosis. Cells were cultured in 12-well culture plates and treated with berberine for 24 h. Afterwards, the cells were washed with PBS, and incubated with 500 μL 4% methanal for 10 min, followed by staining with Hoechst 33258 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) at RT for

10 min, then observed with filters for blue fluorescence under fluorescence microscopy. Electroporated transfection assays NSCLC cells (1 × 107 cells/mL) were washed and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 min, followed by removing the medium and PBS. Afterwards, the cells in the tubes were added Bio-Rad Gene Pulser electroporation buffer. After resuspending the cells, the desired N1-GFP or FoxO3a-GFP plasmid DNA (10 μg/mL) were added and the electroporation plate were put in the MXcell plate chamber and closed the lid in Gene Pulser II Electroporation System (Bio-Rad, CA, USA). The electroporation conditions on the plates to deliver 150 V/5 ms square wave were adjusted until reaching the optimal one. Once the condition has been set and then press “Pulse” to electroporate the cells. After electroporation was completed, the cells were transferred to a tissue culture plate.

The ΔinlA

strain displayed a slight reduction (not statis

The ΔinlA

strain displayed a slight reduction (not statistically significant) in invasion compared to EGD-e, while over expression of InlA resulted in a modest increase in invasion. We speculate that this is due to a reduced affinity of InlA for mCDH1, however we have not assayed for mCDH1 Selleck Enzalutamide production by CT-26 cells. Figure 2 InlA dependent invasion of EGD-e derrived strains into human (Caco-2: grey bars) or murine (CT-26: white bars) monolayers. Exponential phase L. monocytogenes cells (OD = 0.8) were AMG510 invaded (MOI of 25:1) in triplicate for 1 h before overlaying with gentamicin. Invasion was expressed as the average cfu count per well (with standard deviation) or invasion relative to EGD-e (below graph) (n = 3). The graph is representative of the data from three independent experiments. Heterologous expression

was then employed to distinguish InlA from additional virulence determinants on the surface of the L. monocytogenes. We chose to use the well characterized nisin inducible expression system [26] (Figure 1) to produce full length InlA on the surface of L. lactis. The system was chosen because production of functional Anlotinib in vivo InlA on the cell surface of L. lactis had previously been documented [27]. We compared the entry of L. lactis containing vector only (L. lactis-pNZB), producing wild type InlA (L. lactis InlAWT) or producing InlA containing the Ser192Asn and Tyr369Ser, but with different codon usage to the previously described murinized InlAm [17] (L. lactis InlA m *) into Caco-2 and CT-26 cells. The presence of InlA on the cell

surface was confirmed by Western blot analysis (Figure 1b). The level of Interleukin-2 receptor invasion for L. lactis-pNZB into Caco-2 cells is similar to that observed for EGD-eΔinlA (Figure 2 and 3). As L. lactis is non invasive, the surviving bacterial cells probably represent bacteria not killed by the gentamicin treatment rather than internalized cells, as documented previously [1]. A similar level of entry into Caco-2 cells was observed for L. lactis InlAWT and L. lactis InlA m *, while entry into CT-26 cells was 27-30 fold greater for L. lactis InlA m * compared to L. lactis InlAWT (Figure 2). Figure 3 Invasion of L. lactis expressing wild type or murinized InlA into Caco-2 (grey bars) or CT-26 (white bars) monolayers. Nisin induced L. lactis cells were invaded (MOI of 25:1) for 1 h before overlaying with gentamicin. Invasion was expressed as average cfu count (with standard deviation) or invasion relative to L. lactis plasmid only (below graph) (n = 3). The graph is representative of the data from three independent experiments. In contrast to a previous report [11], we observed an increased invasion into a murine cell line by the L. monocytogenes strain over-expressing InlAWT in contrast to the plasmid only control (Figure 2).

Integration across these scales and the merging of traditionally

Integration across these scales and the merging of traditionally distinct approaches are key features of the work. The research ideas presented here come from some of the best early LEE011 career researchers in photosynthesis whom have received their Ph.D. within 15 years of 2013. We solicited early career scientist for this review issue as they can potentially provide a unique perspective on the future of photosynthesis research. Additionally, these scientists are in the trenches of training the next generation(s) of interdisciplinary scientists as well as engaging

the non-scientific community about the importance of both fundamental and applied photosynthetic research. We’ve organized the structure of this special issue scaling from large to small. The first publications address issues

RAD001 price relating to global modeling of photosynthesis (Dietze 2013), the use of biochemical parameters to constrain these models (Rogers 2013), and the influence of climate (Desai 2013) and seasonal changes (Stoy et al. 2013) to canopy level photosynthesis. At the physiological level, manuscripts discuss the use of leaf optical measurements (Ainsworth et al. 2013), the role of internal CO2 diffusion (Buckley and Warren 2013), the thermal acclimation of photosynthesis (Way and Yamori 2013), and the thermal response of different photosynthetic functional types (Yamori et al. 2013). GDC-0449 supplier Following this, a set of manuscripts addresses integration of photosynthesis with other key processes including water use and respiration; specifically discussing genetic variation in water use efficiency (Easlon et al. 2013), the role of redox state on stomatal regulation (Busch 2013), and the interaction of mitochondrial metabolism and photosynthesis (Araújo et al. 2013). The special features of C4 photosynthesis are then discussed both in terms of natural variation in C4 Kranz (Covshoff et al. 2013), and single-cell C4 photosynthesis (Sharpe and Offermann 2013). Ultimately, at the molecular and biochemical level, manuscripts address circadian regulation of photosynthesis (Dodd

Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase et al. 2013), Rubisco (Cavanagh and Kubien 2013), Rubisco activase (Mueller-Cajar et al. 2013), pigment regulation of light harvesting (Holleboom and Walla 2013), pigment biosynthesis (Sobotka 2013), thylakoid reactions (Johnson and Ruban 2013) and thylakoid organization (Sznee et al. 2013). We are excited about the findings and opinions presented here and the discussion of future research directions collected in these manuscripts. As for many centuries, this is an exciting time to study photosynthesis, and it is clear that this area of research has a bright future that will assimilate much more valuable knowledge as this multidisciplinary field continues to move forward. References Ainsworth EA, Serbin SP, Skoneczka JA, Townsend PA (2013) Using leaf optical properties to detect ozone effects on foliar biochemistry. Photosynth Res. doi:10.

18) 51(51 52) 1 130 0 288   female 11(11 11) 19(19 19)     Age(ye

18) 51(51.52) 1.130 0.288   female 11(11.11) 19(19.19)     Age(year) ≤ 60 9(9.09) 30(30.30) 1.200 0.273   > 60 20(20.20) 40(40.40)     Tumor diameter(cm) ≤ 5 17(17.17) 40(40.40) 4.175 0.041   > 5 12(12.12) 10(10.10)     Histological grade

1 5(5.05) 16(16.16) 2.030 0.566   2 13(13.13) 27(27.27)       3 11(11.11) 27(27.27)     Invasion depth T 1 0(0.00) 11(11.11) 6.116 0.106   T 2 6(6.06) 17(17.17)       T 3 10(10.10) 21(21.21)       T 4 13(13.13) 21(21.21)     Lymph node metastasis N 0 3(3.03) 27(27.27) 10.227 0.017   N 1 15(15.15) 20(20.20)       N 2 7(7.07) 19(19.19)       N 3 4(4.04) 4(4.04)   #BEZ235 clinical trial randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]#   TNM stage II 2(2.02) 19(19.19) 8.108 0.044   III 4(4.04) 10(10.10)       IV 13(13.13) 31(31.31)       IV 10(10.10) 10(10.10)     Lymphatic vessel infiltration positive 28(28.28) 27(27.27) 27.636 0.000   negative 1(1.01) 43(43.43)     Vascular infiltration positive 28(28.28) 15(15.15) 46.624 0.000   negative 1(1.01) 55(55.56)     Table 2 Logistic analysis on the correlation of CD 133 protein expression with clinicopathological parameters (n = 99 cases) Parameter this website B SE Wald df Sig. Exp(B) 95.0%CI for Exp(B) Gender 0.012 0.017 0.201 1 0.328 1.003

0.972~7.873 Age(year) 0.007 0.018 0.158 1 0.691 1.007 0.875~3.125 Tumor diameter(cm) 0.209 0.123 2.908 1 0.088 1.233 1.334~8.911 Invasion depth -1.238 0.488 6.430 1 0.011 0.290 1.079~12.381 Histological grade 0.181 0.281 0.414 1 0.520 1.198 0.987~3.212 Lymph node metastasis -0.929 0.459 4.102 1 0.043 0.395 1.156~18.324 TNM stage 1.048 0.636 2.720 1 0.049 2.853 1.138~14.216 Lymphatic vessel infiltration 0.847 0.601 1.568 1 0.067 3.213 1.335~10.954 Vascular infiltration 0.760 0.662 1.317 1 0.251 2.137 0.991~6.872 CD133 mRNA expressions in primary lesion and in NCGT The semi quantitative RT-PCR detection in 31 patients was performed to confirm the expressions of CD133 mRNA in primary lesion (100.0%) and NCGT (16.1%, 5 cases/31 cases)(χ2 = 15.125, P = Thiamet G 0.000) (Figure 2A). Figure 2 Detection and distribution of semi-quantitative BSV of CD133 mRNA by RT-PCR (n = 31 cases). Note: 2A showed the detection of semi-quantitative BSV of CD133 mRNA. A and C showed CD133 mRNA expressions in primary lesions. E and G showed CD133 mRNA expressions in NCGT. B and D showed GAPDH mRNA expressions as an internal reference for subgroup of primary lesions.

J Clin Invest 2009, 119 (2) : 362–375 PubMed 29 Teh BG: [Pim-1 i

J Clin Invest 2009, 119 (2) : 362–375.PubMed 29. Teh BG: [Pim-1 induced by hypoxia is involved in drug resistance and tumorigenesis of solid tumor cells]. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi PLX4032 2004, 79 (1) : 19–26.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions XPM and BH evaluated the immunostainings. JXC and ZBX performed

the statistical analysis. SJG and SPQ drafted the manuscript. JC revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in men in the United States, causing over 12,000 deaths annually [1]. Although seventy percent of cases are diagnosed in the superficial stage, up to 30% can present with or develop muscle-invasive

disease, and long term outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor [2, 3]. Additional treatments that prevent or control the progression of bladder carcinoma are therefore sorely needed. Altered expression of certain genes commonly found in human carcinomas are also found in bladder cancer, including decreased expression of E-cadherin [4–8] and the tumor suppressors p53 and p21 [9–11], with increased expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) [12]. Of these abnormalities, decreased E-cadherin and increased HB-EGF expression appear to be particularly closely associated with increased tumor progression,

cell proliferation, and/or metastasis [5–8, 12–15]. Therapies Dibutyryl-cAMP aimed at controlling the aberrant expression of genes associated with tumor progression and metastasis in bladder carcinoma cells may be Acadesine molecular weight helpful Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase for controlling disease. Our laboratory previously discovered a natural antiproliferative factor (APF) [16–18] that profoundly inhibits bladder epithelial cell proliferation [19, 20], upregulates E-cadherin [21], p53 and p21 [22] expression, and inhibits the production of other cell proteins including HB-EGF [17, 20, 21, 23]. APF is secreted specifically by bladder epithelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic bladder disorder characterized by bladder epithelial thinning and/or ulceration [24–26]. APF is a low molecular weight frizzled 8-related glycopeptide that inhibits both normal and IC bladder epithelial cell proliferation via cytoskeleton associated protein 4 (CKAP4, also known as CLIMP-63 and ERGIC-63) [27], a type II transmembrane receptor [28] whose palmitoylation appears to be required for mediating APF activity in HeLa cells [29]. Synthetic asialo-APF (as -APF) inhibits T24 bladder carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro at low (nanomolar) concentrations similar to those required for inhibition of normal bladder epithelial cell proliferation [19].

For the x = 0 09 as-deposited sample, the k values are lower and

For the x = 0.09 as-deposited sample, the k values are lower and annealing (and hence crystallization into predominantly

tetragonal or cubic phase) Batimastat solubility dmso produces the higher k values. It is possible that the dielectric relaxation behavior observed is due to the level of stress in the crystalline grains, depending on the grain size, analogous to the behavior of ferroelectric ceramics. Figure 8 XTEM (a,b), XRD (c), and k- f data (d) of annealed and as-deposited samples. (a) XTEM of annealed La0.09Zr0.91O2 sample. (b) XTEM of annealed La0.35Zr0.65O2 sample. (c) XRD of as-deposited La x Zr 1−x O2−δ. (d) k-f data of as-deposited and annealed La x Zr 1−x O2−δ[52]. An interesting correlation of CeO2 as high-k thin film between grain size and dielectric relaxation was further discussed afterwards [57]. Figure 9a,b AG-120 purchase shows XRD diffraction patterns for the as-deposited and annealed samples, respectively. PDA in vacuum at 800°C for 15 min causes an increase in the size of the crystalline grains. The grain size of the annealed sample (9.55 nm) is larger than the original sample (8.83 nm). In order to investigate the frequency dispersion for CeO2, normalized dielectric constant in Figure 9b is quantitatively utilized to characterize the dielectric constant variation. It is observed that the dielectric relaxation for the as-deposited sample (triangle symbol) is much serious than

the annealed one (square symbol). The smaller the grain size, the more intense is the dielectric Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II relaxation. These findings are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental studies proposed by Yu et al. [86], which reported the effect of grain size on the ferroelectric

relaxor behavior in CaCu3TiO12 (CCTO) ceramics (shown in inset of Figure 9b). The dielectric relaxation for the small grain size sample is the worst. The effect of grain size mainly originates from higher GDC-0068 clinical trial surface stress in smaller grain due to its higher concentration of grain boundary. Surface stress in grain is high, medium and low for the small, medium, and large grain size CCTO samples. As surface stress increases, the glasslike transition temperature decreases considerably. It is attributed to the enhancement of the correlations among polar nanodomains. Figure 9 XRD of (a) and normalized dielectric constants (b) for as-deposited and annealed CeO 2 samples. (b) Under different frequencies [57]. XRD diffraction patterns for the as-deposited CeO2 thin films at 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350°C, respectively, are shown in the inset of Figure 10a [57]. The grain size value is obtained in Figure 10a using the Scherrer formula based on the XRD data. There is a clear trend that the grain size increases with increasing deposition temperatures. In Figure 10b, large dielectric relaxation is observed for the sample of 6.13 nm (diamond symbol) [57]. When the deposition temperature increases, the dielectric relaxation is even worse for the sample of 6.69 nm (square symbol).

gingivalis cultures were centrifuged for 30 min at 20,000 × g at

gingivalis cultures were centrifuged for 30 min at 20,000 × g at 4°C and the supernatants were filtered through a 0.22-μm pore-size filter (Roth). Bacterial pellets were washed with PBS and suspended in PBS to OD660 = 0.1. To separate outer-membrane vesicles, the filtered culture medium was centrifuged for 2 h at 100,000 × g. For HmuY expression analysis, samples corresponding to 5 μl of the bacterial culture at OD660 = 0.1 or 20 μl of the culture medium were separated by 15% SDS-PAGE and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes (Schleicher & Schuell). Nonspecific binding sites were blocked with 5% skim milk in PBS. HmuY was visualized with polyclonal anti-HmuY rabbit

serum (Lampire) and secondary goat anti-rabbit IgG antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP; Sigma), both used at 1:10,000 dilutions. The reaction was developed using chemiluminescence reagents (Western Lightning Plus-ECL; Perkin Elmer). To determine P. gingivalis mTOR inhibitor autolysis, the presence of Fur was examined in both cells

and culture medium using Western blotting with rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against the synthetic peptide derived from the amino-acid sequence of Fur (CILADKDLRPPRFSY; GeneScript). Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Epacadostat in vitro Levels of anti-HmuY antibodies in rabbit find more sera were determined by ELISA. For this purpose, 96-well polystyrene plates (Polysorp; Nunc) were coated for 1 h at 37°C with 100 μl/well HmuY in PBS. The plates were washed three times with 200 μl of PBS prior to blocking for 1 h at 37°C with 200 μl of 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) dissolved in PBS and then washed three times with 200 μl of PBS. Two-fold serum dilutions or 1:10,000 serum dilutions (100 μl of pre-immune, test I, test II, and immune

serum) were prepared in PBS and incubated for 1 h at 37°C. After washing, antibody binding was detected using goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with HRP. After three final washes, a substrate solution (100 μl) containing 0.05% o-phenylenediamine (Sigma) with 0.01% H2O2 was added for color development at room temperature. The reaction was stopped after 15 min by adding 25 μl of 12.5% H2SO4 and the absorbance was measured at 450 nm using a Multiskan Ascent microplate reader (Thermo Electron Corporation). Whole-cell ELISA, dot-blotting, and FACS analyses As an additional method of HmuY detection, cell surface staining with anti-HmuY antibodies was performed using whole-cell ELISA, dot-blotting, and flow cytometry (FACS) analyses. P. gingivalis cells grown to OD660 = 1.0 were used for these experiments. For the ELISA and dot-blotting analyses, washed cells at several dilutions were adsorbed on the surface of microtiter plates or nitrocellulose membranes. Nonspecific binding of antibodies was prevented by incubation with 1% bovine serum albumin and 2% bovine fetal serum (Sigma) before the addition of rabbit pre-immune or anti-HmuY immune serum (1:10,000) or purified IgG fractions (100 ng/ml).

Mol Microbiol 2010, 77:701–715 PubMedCrossRef 4 van Niftrik L, G

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The oprL qPCR is applied in screening because of its good sensiti

The oprL qPCR is applied in screening because of its good sensitivity. In case of a doubtful or a positive result, the gyrB/ecfX qPCR is applied in a second time. Interpretation of the gyrB/ecfX qPCR takes into account the quantification found with oprL qPCR. Below the detection threshold of 730 CFU/mL, the oprL qPCR GKT137831 mouse prevails over the gyrB/ecfX qPCR. Conversely, beyond this threshold, the gyrB/ecfX qPCR prevails over the oprL qPCR.

This qPCR-based combined protocol can be adapted for instance in a subgroup of non-sputum producing patients and used for other future prospective studies. Indeed, the initial colonization of P. aeruginosa often occurs in CF patients who do not produce sputum (e.g. mainly children). This qPCR format should therefore be tested on the sample secretions routinely obtained from, e.g. deep throat swabs or endolaryngeal suction. Acknowledgments This study was supported by a grant from the French Cystic Fibrosis Association “Vaincre la Mucoviscidose” (contract No. RCO 1773). This study was presented

in part at the 4th Congress of European Microbiologists FEMS, 26-30 June 2011, Geneva, Switzerland. The authors thank Jocelyne Caillon, and Alain Michault for providing some of the isolates used in this study. We are indebted to Zarrin Alavi for critical reading of the manuscript. References 1. Ballmann M, Rabsch P, von der Hardt H: Long-term RO4929097 concentration follow up of changes in FEV1 and treatment intensity during Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation in patients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1998,53(9):732–737.PubMedCrossRef 2. Ciofu O, Riis B, Pressler T, Poulsen HE, Hoiby N: Occurrence of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with the oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation. Antimicrob Agents Niclosamide Chemother 2005,49(6):2276–2282.PubMedCrossRef 3. Nixon GM, Armstrong DS, Carzino R, Carlin JB, Olinsky A, Robertson CF, Grimwood K: Clinical outcome

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PubMedCrossRef 30. Shirreffs SM: Markers of hydration status. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000, 40:80–84.PubMed 31. Karli U, Güvenç A, Aslan A, Hazir T, Acikada C: Influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performance and recovery following short time high intensity exercise. J Sports Sci Med 2007,2007(6):490–497. 32. Al Hourani HM, Atoum MF, Akel S, Hijjawi N,

Awawdeh S: Effects of Ramadan fasting on some haematological and biochemical ATR inhibitor parameters. Jordan J Biol Sci 2009, 2:103–108. 33. Womersley RA, Darragh JH: Potassium and sodium restriction in the normal human. J Clin Invest 1955, 34:456–461.PubMedCrossRef 34. Bouhlel E, Denguezli M, Zaouali M, Tabka Z, Tabka Z, Shephard RJ: Ramadan fasting effect on plasma leptin, adiponectin concentrations, and body composition in trained young men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008, 18:617–627.PubMed 35. Ibrahim WH, Habib HM, Jarrar AH, Al Baz SA: Effect of Ramadan fasting on markers of oxidative stress and serum biochemical markers of cellular damage in healthy subjects. Ann Nutr Metab 2008, 53:175–181.PubMedCrossRef 36. Gabay C, Kushner I: Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med 1999, 340:448–454.PubMedCrossRef 37. Chaouachi A, Coutts AJ, Wong DP, Roky R, see more Mbazaa A, Amri CH5183284 cell line A, Chamari K: Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses

in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009, 34:907–915.PubMedCrossRef Competing interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions All authors have made substantive intellectual contributions towards conducting the study and preparing the manuscript for publication. TK, GZ, JK, KS, MRJ, HA and ZKM were responsible for the study design, coordination of the study, and oversight of data collection and analysis. SRS assisted in manuscript

preparation and the revision of final manuscript. All authors read and approved of the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Morin Hydrate Obesity, particularly central adiposity, has been increasingly cited as a major health issue in recent decades. Indeed, some of the leading causes of preventable death and disability, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, degenerative joint disease, low back pain, and specific types of cancer are obesity-related [1]. In the United States, more than one-third of adults (35.7%) are obese [2]. Annual obesity-related medical costs in the United States were estimated to be as high as $147 billion in 2009 [3]. Excess body weight is also a major risk factor for the development of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome is a constellation of medical disorders including hypertension, central adiposity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia [4, 5] that increase the risk of premature cardiovascular disease.