Moreover,proliferat ing synthetic vSMC can be converted back or modulated to a more mature phenotype by placing the cells in quies cent media to selectively increase in the expression of the SMC differentiation markers.Original studies in canine carotid arteries suggested that neointimal modulated proliferative SMC were not derived from differentiated SMC but instead formed from a myosin negative type II medial SMC cell.Re cent lineage tracing studies in vivo using SM MHC as a marker suggest that SM MHC? negative resident multipotent vascular stem cells,and not de differentiated vSMCs,repopulate the neointima follow ing vascular injury and proliferate and differentiate into vSMCs.Moreover,Notch activation following co culture Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of MVSCs with OP9 Delta1 feeder cells for 2 weeks promoted MVSC transition to vSMC.

MVSCs are resident stem cells located in the tunica media and adventitial layers of the arterial wall and express the neural crest cell marker Sox10,endoderm marker Sox17,glial cell marker S100B Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and neural filament medium polypeptide.Sox10 is routinely used to identify and trace MVSCs in blood vessels.MVSCs Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries can be cloned from single cells,possess telomerase activity and can dif ferentiate into Schwann cells,peripheral Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries neurons,vSMCs,chondrocytes,adipocytes and osteoblasts.The A10 and A7r5 cell lines were originally derived from the thoracic aorta of 14 17 day old embryonic BD1X rats and are a commonly used model of vSMC in culture.Initial characterisation of these cells sug gested that they were non differentiated vSMC that dif fer from neonatal but bear significant resemblance to neointimal cells.

The functionality of A10 and A7r5 cells and their Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries relevance to mechanisms underlying the contractile properties of highly differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells is questionable.Nevertheless,these cell lines exhibit an adult smooth muscle phenotype and show expression and promoter activity of several highly restricted smooth muscle cell markers.Moreover,a phenotypic transition from vascular smooth to skeletal muscle and a detailed examination of the gene expres sion program associated with this transition has been re ported.The cells also have the ability research use to contract by both calcium dependent and independent mechanisms.