METHODS: All patients presenting to 2 academic hospitals with sym

METHODS: All patients presenting to 2 academic hospitals with symptomatic intracranial disease between 2006 and 2008 who underwent catheter

angiography were identified. Patients with complete intracranial occlusion or stenosis less than 50% stenosis were excluded (n = 14).

RESULTS: Thirty-one patients met the study criteria. Sixteen (52%) patients were on antiplatelet medications at the time of the initial event, and 2 patients were also on anticoagulant medications. Six patients (19%) underwent intracranial angioplasty and/or stent placement with their initial diagnostic angiogram. Twenty-five patients (81%) had endovascular treatment Stattic research buy deferred for best medical treatment in the interim period. Among the 25 patients who were kept on medical management, Cyclopamine 14 (56%) were readmitted with recurrent ischemic events in the distribution of the target artery within a median of 28 days (range, 1-243 days). Recurrent events occurred within 1 week in 8 (57%) patients, between 7 days and 1 month in 4 (29%) patients, 1 to 3 months in 1 (7%) patient, and after 3 months in 1 (7%) patient. Recurrent ischemic events were observed in all 5 patients with basilar artery stenosis and in 13 of 17 patients with severity

of stenosis >= 70%.

CONCLUSION: A high rate of recurrent ischemic events was observed among patients in whom endovascular treatment was deferred, particularly

those with basilar artery stenosis and those with high-grade stenosis. This information would be beneficial in decision making for timing of the endovascular treatment among patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis.”
“The thermoregulatory behavior Etomoxir of the wavy turban snail Megastrea (Lithopoma) undosa was determined in a horizontal thermal gradient and was 16.31 in day cycle and 14.4 degrees C in night cycle. Displacement velocity of adults was 29.3 +/- 4.2 cm h(-1) during the light phase and 26.1 +/- 3.2 cm h(-1) the dark phase. The critical thermal maxima of the wavy turban snail were determined. As a measure of thermal tolerance, snails were subjected to increasing water temperatures at a rate of 1 degrees C every 30 min until they were detached from the substrate. The critical thermal maximum at 50% was 29.7 degrees C. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Vasospasm is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is well known that the vasoreactivity decreases with advancing age, but it is not well investigated in a large patient cohort whether, as a consequence, the incidence of vasospasm is lower in elderly patients.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether transcranial Doppler vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficits, and vasospasm-associated ischemic lesions are less frequent in older patients.

With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may

With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may have been detected. This report shows no evidence of latent effects of GCE on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language. GCE effects were observed on the incidental face memory task, and GCE by assessment number interaction effects was seen on the incidental word memory task (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Intracerebroventricular administration of alpha-MSH in young adult fats enhanced metabolic rate and caused a dose-dependent suppression of food intake, exhibiting a coordinated catabolic pattern However, the thermoregulatory effects did not seem to be

coordinated the rising heat production was accompanied by a practically simultaneous tendency for rise in heat loss (skin vasodilatation), and the final core temperature either increased or decreased depending on which Epigenetics inhibitor rise prevailed The effect on heat loss possibly explains the antipyretic properties of the peptide (C) 2010

Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.”
“The goal of the present investigation was to characterize the development of inhibitory control, an aspect of executive functions, in a sample of prenatally cocaine exposed (CE; n = 165) children compared to an at risk, but prenatally cocaine unexposed (NCE; n = 119) sample across time (i.e. 7.5 to 11.5 years of age). Gender and cumulative risk, a combination FG-4592 supplier of postnatal medical (i.e. low birth weight and APGAR scores) and demographic risk, indexed by maternal educational attainment, were examined as predictors of change in inhibitory control across

time and aggression was modeled as an outcome when children reached 14 years of age. Multiple group latent growth models indicated that CE children made more errors at 7.5 years of age during a standard Stroop interference task, however, over time CE children had greater age-related improvements, narrowing the initial gap, with NCE children in the ability to inhibit errors. Gender effects at 7.5 years within the NCE group were identified RNA Synthesis inhibitor with NCE boys making initially more errors than NCE girls; both NCE and CE girls improved faster across development compared to NCE and CE boys, respectively. Greater cumulative risk was associated with more errors at 7.5 years in the CE and NCE groups. No differences were observed between CE and NCE children on time to complete the Stroop task at 7.5 years. However, NCE children had greater age-related improvements in their time to complete the Stroop interference task relative to their CE counterparts. NCE girls improved the fastest over time relative to NCE boys; a similar trend emerged (p < 0.10) with CE girls improving faster over time than CE boys. Although all participants improved across development, higher cumulative risk in both groups was associated with slower age-related improvements (i.e. higher slopes) in the time to complete the Stroop task across development.

The present investigation was designed to determine the central s

The present investigation was designed to determine the central sensory neuronal pathways and their GABA(A)-alpha 1 and -alpha 3 receptor presenting neurons that respond to gastric mechanoreceptor stimulation within the entire rat brain. Low pressure gastric distension was used to deliver physiological mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats, and different protocols PD0332991 supplier of gastric distension were performed to mimic different stimulation patterns with and without sectioning vagal and/or splanchnic afferent nerves. Mapping of activated neurons was investigated using double colorimetric immunolhistochemistry for GABA(A)-alpha 1 or -alpha 3 subunits and c-Fos. Following

stomach distension, neurons expressing GABA(A) receptors with alpha 1 or alpha 3 subunits were detected. Low frequency gastric distension induced c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarii

(NTS) only, whereas in the high frequency gastric distension c-Fos positive nuclei were found in lateral reticular nucleus and in NTS in addition to some forebrain areas. In contrast, during the tonic-rapid gastric distension the neuronal see more activation was found in hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain areas. Moreover different protocols of gastric stimulation activated diverse patterns of neurons presenting GABA(A)-alpha 1 or -alpha 3 receptors within responding brain nuclei, which may indicate a probable functional significance of differential expression of GABAA-responding neurons. The same protocol of gastric Pritelivir distension performed in vagotomized rats has confirmed the primary role of the vagus in the response of activation of gastric brain areas, whereas neuronal input of splanchnic origins was shown to play an important role in modulating the mechanogastric response of brain areas. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 is the main candidate enzyme

for the a-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Neuron-specific ADAM10 overexpression proved beneficial in the APP[V7171] mutant Alzheimer mouse model [Postina R, Schroeder A, Dewachter I, Bohl J, Schmitt U, Kojro E, Prinzen C, Endres K, Hiemke C, Blessing M, Flamez P, Dequenne A, Godaux E, van Leuven F, Fahrenholz F (2004) A disintegrin-metalloproteinase prevents amyloid plaque formation and hippocampal defects in an Alzheimer disease mouse model. J Clin Invest 113:1456-1464]. Since Alzheimer patients have a high prevalence for epileptic seizures, we investigated the effects of ADAM10 modulation under conditions of experimentally induced epileptic seizures. In this context we also examined whether ADAM10 effects were influenced by APP levels. Therefore we compared severity of kainate-induced seizures, neurodegeneration and inflammation in double transgenic mice overexpressing functional ADAM10 or a dominant negative ADAM10 mutant in the APP[V7171] background with single transgenic ADAM10 modulated mice.

We determined the specificities of N on red blood cells, soluble

We determined the specificities of N on red blood cells, soluble smallmolecule and glycoprotein substrates, and the glycan array and compared them to the specificities of H. hPIV2 and -3, but not hPIV1, cleaved their ligands on red blood cells. hPIV1, -2, and -3 cleaved

their NeuAc alpha 2-3 ligands on the glycan array; hPIV2 and -3 also cleaved NeuAc alpha 2-6 ligands bound by influenza A virus. While all three HNs exhibited similar affinities for all cleavable soluble substrates, their activities were 5-to 10-fold higher on small molecules than on glycoproteins. In addition, some soluble glycoproteins were not cleaved, despite containing oligosaccharides that were cleaved on the glycan array. We conclude that the susceptibility of an oligosaccharide substrate to N increases when the substrate is fixed to a surface. These findings suggest that https://www.selleckchem.com/products/CX-6258.html LY2109761 in vivo HN may undergo a conformational change

that activates N upon receptor binding at a cell surface.”
“All metazoan cells produce and/or interact with tissue-specific extracellular matrices (ECMs). Such ECMs play important structural roles not only in connective tissues, but in all tissues in which they provide support and anchorage for cells. However, in addition to such structural roles it has become increasingly clear that the tissue-specific microenvironments formed by the ECM play instructional roles that inform the proper phenotypes and functional behaviors of specialized cell types, and recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that ECM components also affect metabolic function. This review summarizes data that provide insights into the roles of the ECM in informing the proper development and functioning of highly specialized cells of metabolic tissues, such as adipocytes and islet beta cells.”
“We examined

the effects of viewing high-arousal pictures on regional brain activations elicited by a cognitive control task in participants with high-functioning autism and neurotypical controls. Specifically, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed selleck products the effects of brief presentations of highly arousing pictures (i.e., both very pleasant and very unpleasant) on the processing of stimuli requiring cognitive control. Similar to previous findings, when stimuli with high cognitive control demands were preceded by low-arousal pictures, individuals with autism demonstrated regional brain activations that were comparable to neurotypical control individuals. When the presentation of the cognitive control stimuli was preceded by high-arousal pictures, however, the control group was characterized by relatively greater activation in the right lateral midfrontal cortex in response to cognitive control stimuli.

Adenosine is a homeostatic bioenergetic network modulator that is

Adenosine is a homeostatic bioenergetic network modulator that is able to affect complex networks

synergistically at different levels (receptor-dependent pathways, biochemistry, bioenergetics, and epigenetics). By affecting brain dopamine and glutamate activities, it represents a promising candidate for reversing the functional imbalance in these neurotransmitter systems believed to underlie the genesis of schizophrenia symptoms, as well as restoring homeostasis of bioenergetics. Suggestion of an adenosine hypothesis of schizophrenia further posits that adenosinergic dysfunction might contribute to the emergence of multiple neurotransmitter dysfunctions characteristic of schizophrenia via diverse mechanisms. Given the importance of adenosine in early brain development and regulation of brain immune response, it also bears direct relevance to the aetiology GSK461364 concentration of schizophrenia. Here, we provide an overview of the rationale and evidence in support of the therapeutic potential

of multiple adenosinergic targets, including the high-affinity adenosine receptors (A(1)R PLX-4720 and A(2A)R), and the regulatory enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). Key preliminary clinical data and preclinical findings are reviewed.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of the IWR-1 purchase selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist and antagonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (m-CPBG)

and ondansetron, respectively, were studied in adult male Wistar rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. Microinjection of m-CPBG (2.0 and 4.0 mM) into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) decreased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods during the first, second, and third 2-h recording period. On the other hand, direct infusion of ondansetron (0.5-1.0 mM) into the DRN induced no significant changes in sleep variables over the 6 h of recording. Pretreatment with ondansetron (0.5 mM) antagonized the m-CPBG (2.0 mM)-induced reduction of REMS and of the number of REM periods. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the 5-HT3 receptor is involved in the effect of DRN serotonergic neurons on brainstem structures that act to promote and induce REMS.

It is suggested that the suppression of REMS after the microinjection of m-CPBG into the DRN is related, at least in part, to the stimulation of glutamatergic interneurons that express 5-HT3 receptors. Activation of these receptors facilitates the release of glutamate, which, in turn, acts on postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed by serotonergic neurons of the DRN and increases the release of 5-HT at postsynaptic sites. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Our results indicate that ectromelia virus has evolved multiple p

Our results indicate that ectromelia virus has evolved multiple proteins that interact with the SCF complex.”
“GPR103 is known as an orphan G protein-coupled receptor. 26RFa and QRFP are endogenous ligands of GPR103. GPR103 mRNA has been reported to be highly expressed in the superficial layers of the entire spinal cord and a high density of 26RFa binding sites was observed in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn. In the present

study, the effects Batimastat of spinally applied 26RFa were tested in the rat. Intrathecal injection of 26RFa significantly decreased the frequency of agitation behaviors induced by paw formalin injection, and attenuated the level of mechanical allodynia induced by paw carrageenan selleck inhibitor injection, in a dose dependent manner

at doses between 0.01 and 10 mu g. Intrathecal injection of 26RFa had no effect in both the 52.5 degrees C hotplate test and the mechanical nociceptive test at doses between 0.1 and 10 mu g. An immunohistochemical study revealed that GPR103-like immunoreactivity (LI) was observed in the superficial layers of spinal dorsal horn, that QRFP-LI was observed in the dorsal root ganglion and that intrathecal 26RFa suppressed the expression of Fos-LI induced by paw formalin injection in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggested that spinally applied 26RFa may modulate spinal sensitization induced by paw formalin injection or paw carrageenan injection. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. HIV-1

synthesizes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) to counter A3G restriction. Currently, it is poorly understood how A3G expression/activity is regulated by cellular factors. Here, we show that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 protein modulates A3G expression. Pin1 was found to be an A3G-interacting protein that reduces A3G expression and its incorporation into HIV-1 virion, thereby limiting A3G-mediated restriction of HIV-1. Intriguingly, HIV-1 infection selleck kinase inhibitor modulates the phosphorylation state of Pin1, enhancing its ability to moderate A3G activity. These new findings suggest a potential Vif-independent way for HIV-1 to moderate the cellular action of A3G.”
“Stress-induced hypoalgesia (SIH) is an adaptive behavioral phenomenon mediated in part by the amygdala. Acute stress increases amygdalar noradrenaline levels and focal application of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is antinociceptive. We hypothesized that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist administration into the CeA may block SIH.

Bilateral microinjections of drug or saline via chronically implanted CeA cannulae were followed by either a period of restraint stress or rest. The nocifensive paw-withdrawal latency (PWL) to a focused beam of light was measured. PWLs were longer in restrained rats, constituting SIH.

These data suggest biological relevance for the W187-mediated hom

These data suggest biological relevance for the W187-mediated homotypic interaction of NS1.”
“The C188-9 chemical structure molecular basis of bipolar disorder (BD) is still unknown as is the mechanism through which lithium, the therapy of choice, exerts its effects in treatment of BD. So far, no biomarkers exist to facilitate diagnosis of BD or treatment evaluation. To investigate whether BD and its treatment with lithium leaves a characteristic signature in the serum proteome, we used SELDI-TOF MS to analyze individual serum samples from BD patients treated with lithium (BD-plus-Li,

n = 15) or other drugs (BD-minus-Li, n = 10) and from healthy controls (n = 15). Interestingly, features of 28 kDa (one peak) and 14 kDa (three peaks) showed a decreased level in the BD-minus-Li group and a level restored to that of the control group in the BD-plus-Li group. To reveal the identity of these features, we subjected pooled serum samples from both BD groups to the 2-D DIGE technology and identified 28 kDa apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and three 14 kDa fragments thereof as upregulated in the BD-plus-Li group. Immunoturbidimetry, a routine clinical assay, verified the characteristic apo A-I signature in individual serum samples. In conclusion, we propose apo A-I as a candidate marker that can visualize response to lithium treatment at the serum protein level.”
“Chronic stress is known to modulate cannabinoid

CB1 receptor binding densities in corticolimbic structures, in a region-dependent Farnesyltransferase manner; however, the ontogeny of these changes find more and the degree to which they recover following exposure to stress have yet to be determined. To this extent, we examined both the immediate and sustained effects (following a 40-day recovery

period) of a repeated restraint stress paradigm (30-min restraint/day for 10 days) on CB1, receptor binding in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and amygdala in both adolescent (stress onset at post-natal day [PND] 35) and adult (stress onset at PND 75) male Sprague Dawley rats. Consistent with previous reports, we found that repeated stress in adult rats resulted in an increase in CB1 receptor binding in the PFC, a reduction in CB., receptor binding in the hippocampus and no effect in the amygdala. Interestingly, adolescent rats exposed to repeated restraint stress did not show any change in hippocampal CB1 receptor density, but exhibited an upregulation of CBI receptor binding in both the PFC and amygdala. In adults, a 40-day recovery period resulted in a normalization of CB1, receptor binding in the PFC, and surprisingly a pronounced upregulation of CB1, receptor binding in the hippocampus, possibly indicative of a rebound effect. Adolescents similarly exhibited this rebound increase in hippocampal CB1 receptor binding, despite a lack in immediate downregulation following repeated restraint.

Furthermore, biochemical fractionation revealed increases in leve

Furthermore, biochemical fractionation revealed increases in levels of DNA-bound forms of these HRRs. Bromodeoxyuridine-labeled chromatin immunoprecipitation and PCR analyses confirmed the loading of RPA, Rad 51, Rad52, and Mre11 onto newly synthesized viral DNA, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling analysis demonstrated

DSBs in the EBV replication compartments. HRR factors might be recruited to repair DSBs on the viral genome in viral replication compartments. RNA interference knockdown of RPA32 and Rad51 prevented viral DNA synthesis remarkably, suggesting that homologous recombination and/or repair of viral DNA genome might occur, coupled with DNA replication to facilitate viral genome synthesis.”
“The aim of this study in the biparental rodent

Octodon degus Elafibranor purchase S3I-201 cost was to assess the impact of paternal deprivation on neuronal and synaptic development in the orbitofrontal cortex, a prefrontal region which is essential for emotional and cognitive function. On the behavioral level the quantitative comparison of parental behaviors in biparental and single-mother families revealed that (i) degu fathers significantly participate in parental care and (ii) single-mothers do not increase their maternal care to compensate the lack of paternal care. On the brain structural level we show in three-week-old father-deprived animals that layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex displayed significantly lower spine densities on apical and basal dendrites. Whereas biparentally raised animals have reached adult spine density values at postnatal day 21, fatherless animals seem “”to catch up”" by a delayed increase of spine density until reaching similar values as biparentally raised

animals in adulthood. However, in adulthood reduced apical spine numbers together with shorter apical dendrites were observed in father-deprived animals, which RSL3 mw indicates that dendritic growth and synapse formation (seen in biparental animals between postnatal day 21 and adulthood) were significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that paternal deprivation delays and partly suppresses the development of orbitofrontal circuits. The retarded dendritic and synaptic development of the apical dendrites of layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex of adult fatherless animals may reflect a reduced excitatory connectivity of this cortical subregion. (c) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“RNA-induced silencing is a potent innate antiviral defense strategy in plants, and suppression of silencing is a hallmark of pathogenic plant viruses. However, the impact of silencing as a mammalian antiviral defense mechanism and the ability of mammalian viruses to suppress silencing in natural host cells have remained controversial.

That is, there does not seem to be an NMDAR antagonist regimen

That is, there does not seem to be an NMDAR antagonist regimen

proven to engage NMDARs equivalently in humans and animals that reliably produces the same cognitive effects in each species. This is likely due to the diverse range of techniques and models used by preclinical researchers, a paucity of research describing pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic relationships of NMDAR antagonist regimens, little capability to measure target engagement, and the lack of harmonized procedures between preclinical and clinical studies. Realizing the potential of the NMDAR hypofunction hypothesis to model cognitive impairment in schizophrenia will require some of these issues to be addressed.

This article is WH-4-023 research buy part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although

abnonnalities in brain structures involved in the neurobiology of fear and anxiety have been implicated in the pathophysiology of panic Lonafarnib disorder (PD), relatively few studies have made use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine structural brain abnormalities in PD. We have assessed gray matter volume in 19 PD patients and 20 healthy volunteers using VBM. Images were acquired using a 1.5 T MRI scanner, and were spatially normalized and segmented using optimized VBM. Statistical comparisons were performed using the general linear model. A relative increase in gay matter volume was found in the left insula of PD patients compared with controls. Additional structures showing LDK378 in vivo differential increases were the left superior temporal gyrus, the midbrain, and the pons. A relative gray matter deficit was found in the right anterior cingulate cortex. The insula and anterior cingulate abnormalities may be relevant to the pathophysiology of PD, since these structures participate in the evaluation process that ascribes negative emotional meaning to potentially distressing

cognitive and interoceptive sensory information. The abnormal brain stem structures may be involved in the generation of panic attacks. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) is extremely rare. Various treatment options are currently available, including conservative management, anticoagulation, endovascular stenting, and surgical repair. Herein, we present our experience in the treatment of symptomatic SIDSMA.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 14 consecutive patients with symptomatic SIDSMA between January 2000 and January 2010. All patients had acute onset abdominal pain. The decision to intervene was based on patient symptoms and signs, as well as the morphologic characteristics of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection on computed tomography (CT) angiography. Endovascular stenting (ES) was indicated in patients with severe compression of the true lumen or dissecting aneurysm likely to rupture.

Hence acute kidney injury is common even among patients with non-

Hence acute kidney injury is common even among patients with non-severe pneumonia and is associated with higher immune response and an increased risk of death. Kidney International (2010) 77, 527-535; doi: 10.1038/ki. 2009.502; published

online 23 December 2009″
“In chloroplasts of higher plants, editing and splicing of transcripts is a prerequisite for the proper expression of the plastid genetic information and thereby for photosynthesis. Holoparasitic plants differ from photosynthetic plants in that they have abandoned a photoautotrophic life style, which has led to a reduction or loss of photosynthetic activity. The analysis of several parasitic plant plastid Quizartinib genomes revealed that coding capacities were reduced to different extent, encompassing genes that regulate plastid gene expression as well as photosynthesis genes. The reorganization of the plastid genome is also reflected in overall increases in point mutation rates that parallel the vanishing of RNA editing sites. Unprecedented in land plants is the parallel loss of the plastid gene coding for an intron maturase and all but one this website group ha introns in two parasitic species. These observations highlight the plastome-wide effects that are associated with a relaxed evolutionary pressure in plants living a heterotrophic life style.”
“Studies of acute kidney injury usually lack data on pre-admission kidney function and LCL161 price often

substitute an inpatient or imputed serum creatinine as an estimate for baseline renal function. In this study, we compared the potential error introduced

by using surrogates such as (1) an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 75 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (suggested by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative), (2) a minimum inpatient serum creatinine value, and (3) the first admission serum creatinine value, with values computed using pre-admission renal function. The study covered a 12-month period and included a cohort of 4863 adults admitted to the Vanderbilt University Hospital. Use of both imputed and minimum baseline serum creatinine values significantly inflated the incidence of acute kidney injury by about half, producing low specificities of 77-80%. In contrast, use of the admission serum creatinine value as baseline significantly underestimated the incidence by about a third, yielding a low sensitivity of 39%. Application of any surrogate marker led to frequent misclassification of patient deaths after acute kidney injury and differences in both in-hospital and 60-day mortality rates. Our study found that commonly used surrogates for baseline serum creatinine result in bi-directional misclassification of the incidence and prognosis of acute kidney injury in a hospital setting. Kidney International (2010) 77, 536-542; doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.479; published online 30 December 2009″
“RNA deep sequencing represents a new complementary approach in marine bioprospecting.