Adjusting the polymer properties to improve drug solubility (or m

Adjusting the polymer properties to improve drug solubility (or miscibility) in the polymer coating was found beneficial to the release profile.”
“Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto poly (ethylene terephthalate)

(PET) knittings was investigated by preirradiation technique. The influence of the grafting selleck inhibitor conditions, Such as reaction time, ferrous sulfate concentration, preirradiation dose, organic additives, monomer concentration, and reaction temperature on the degree of grafting was investigated. Precise control over the degree of grafting was achieved by proper selection of the reaction conditions. The organic solvents such as methanol, acetone, isopropanol, THF, and MEK when used as sole medium do not allow the grafting to proceed, probably due to the inhibitory action. However, reasonable grafting proceeded when a mixture of water and organic solvent

was used. Attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy analysis of the grafted knittings confirmed the existence of carboxylic acid groups in the knittings. The surface morphology, as studied by scanning BYL719 order electron microscopy (SEM), was significantly influenced by the addition of organic solvents in the reaction medium. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 1199-1208, 2009″
“Objectives: To determine whether the proposed seven-factor structure of the Illness Perception QuestionnaireRevised (Timeline

Acute/Chronic, Timeline Cyclical, Consequences, Personal Control, Treatment Control, Illness Coherence and Emotional Representations) is appropriate among a population of oesophageal cancer survivors. Methods: Everyone registered with the Oesophageal Patients’ Association in the UK (n52185) was mailed a questionnaire booklet, which included the Illness Perception AZD2171 purchase Questionnaire- Revised. Responses from 587 oesophageal cancer survivors (27%) were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The proposed seven- factor structure provided a reasonable fit of the data. Modification indices suggested that a significantly better fit could be provided if one of the items on the Timeline Acute/ Chronic factor loaded on the Treatment Control factor and an error covariance was added between two other items on the Timeline Acute/ Chronic factor. Conclusions: The model fit for the seven- factor structure proposed by Moss- Morris et al. (Psychol Health 2002; 17: 1- 16) was found to be adequate in our study. However, the structure of the timeline acute/ chronic factor needs to be considered, particularly when the IPQ- R is to be used among older people with a potentially life- threatening illness or those receiving palliative care. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

038) A decrease in fatigue was also observed Women in the inter

038). A decrease in fatigue was also observed. Women in the intervention group reported significantly lower mood disturbances at T2 (p < 0.01) but not at T3. The effect of treatment on mood disturbances was significantly higher if a patient was treated continuously by the same masseur.

Conclusion. Classical massage seems to be an effective adjuvant treatment for reducing physical discomfort and fatigue, and improving mood disturbances in women with early stage breast cancer. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The survival advantage of women

over men with cutaneous melanoma Mizoribine inhibitor and the reports of accelerated progression of melanoma during pregnancy have led to studies of the effect of hormones and hormone receptors on the development and progression of melanoma. However, the results are inconclusive. We therefore evaluated the expression of estrogen receptor , estrogen receptor , and androgen receptor in melanomas of stage- and age-matched pregnant women, nonpregnant women, and men by immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues. In addition, we also assessed the mitotic rate using the antiphosphohistone H3 antibody by immunohistochemistry. Our data showed a trend of more frequent expression

of estrogen receptor in the melanomas of pregnant patients than in the melanomas of male patients, without a significant difference observed Akt activity between pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, no association between the expression of estrogen receptor and survival was observed. The small cohort may have limited the statistical power of the study, and large-scale studies are needed to elucidate the potential role of estrogen receptor as a prognostic marker of melanoma.”
“Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the standard treatment for acute disease bouts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, for which methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy is the most frequently used protocol. Here, we compared the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive MP application in MOG(35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) GDC-0994 mw in C57Bl/6 mice. When administered briefly after the onset of the disease, MP efficiently ameliorated EAE in a

dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, MP administration around the time of immunization was contraindicated as it even increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS and worsened the disease symptoms. Our analyses suggest that in the latter case an incomplete depletion of peripheral T cells by MP triggers homeostatic proliferation, which presumably results in an enhanced priming of autoreactive T cells and causes an aggravated disease course. Thus, the timing and selection of a particular GC derivative require careful consideration in MS therapy.”
“Objective: Palliative care (PC) nurses experience several recurrent organizational, professional, and individual challenges. To address existential and emotional demands, the meaning-centered intervention was recently developed.


We recommend screening for infectious comorbid


We recommend screening for infectious comorbidities such as tuberculosis and viral hepatitis at the first clinical encounter in patients with lupus in addition to recommending pneumococcal vaccination and yearly influenza vaccination. Bromosporine mouse There is currently limited evidence to support antibiotic prophylaxis for SLE patients

on immunosuppressive agents to prevent penumocystis or to support screening for cytomegalovirus and further study is required. Lastly, timely antibiotic treatment in patients with lupus who are hospitalized with infectious complications is important, as delayed antibiotic treatment may be associated with increased mortality.”
“Background: Familial tumoral calcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that was first described well in a report on four patients from one family in 1969. The disease leads to periarticular ectopic calcifications. The original report described patients from black, healthy, unrelated parents with sixteen children, seven of whom had the


Methods: On the basis of retrospective chart reviews and interviews with surviving family members, we describe the long-term follow-up of this one family, encompassing as long as forty years. Of the sixteen siblings, seven had tumoral calcinosis.

Results: All seven affected children had hyperphosphatemia. There were two subsequent generations comprising thirteen children and seven grandchildren with no instances of tumoral calcinosis. The seven affected patients were followed for as many as forty years and underwent an average of NU7441 nmr twenty-one operations (range, four to thirty-six operations) for the treatment of calcified lesions. The genetic defect has been identified as the GALNT3 gene, thus see more leading to the hyperphosphatemic form of the disease. Although two of the patients had died by the time of the present study, the remaining five provided accounts of the disease course, the response to surgery and to medical therapy, and the effect of therapy on their lives. Some members had relatively few lesions and surgical procedures (as few as four), whereas others

had an unrelenting course of lesions, recurrences, and surgical procedures (as many as thirty-six, with numerous other procedures). Three patients had multiyear periods with few symptoms-one for seven years, one for twelve years, and one for fifteen years. No effective medical therapy was found to control the lesions, and operations were associated with a high recurrence rate.

Conclusions: Familial tumoral calcinosis has a varied natural history; some patients have an unrelenting course, while others may experience quiescent periods. The GALNT3 gene is responsible for the hyperphosphatemic form as seen in this family. Molecular testing may be of benefit to members of affected families, and future studies may help to explain the phenotypic variability among affected individuals.

The 28-day-6-month period had an independent protective effect on

The 28-day-6-month period had an independent protective effect on the following therapies: coronary reperfusion, and prescription of antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers and lipid lowering drugs upon discharge.

Conclusions: Twenty-eight-day and six-month mortality rates fell among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Spain from 1995 to 2005. The possibly related therapeutic factors were the following: more Alvespimycin ic50 frequent reperfusion therapy and increased use of anti-thrombotic drugs, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid lowering drugs. (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia.

Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“Enzymatic route to fragrant 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) formation in Hemidesmus indicus roots is not known. Earlier studies with H. indicus excised roots suggested a possible origin of MBALD via central phenylpropanoid pathway. Different elicitors (e.g., chitosan, methyl jasmonate, yeast extract) were tested

for their relative efficiency in uplifting MBALD accumulation in roots, amongst which, treatment with yeast extract for 18 h showed maximum accumulation in excised roots. As benzoate pathways originate either directly from shikimate or via phenylpropanoid pathway, this study aimed at finding the roles of shikimate pathway in uplifting/enhancing MBALD accumulation in H. indicus P005091 roots upon elicitation. In fact, a sharp increase in shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH; E.C. along with phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; E.C. activities was noted on a time-course basis in yeast extract-treated roots as compared to the untreated ones. PAL as well as phenylpropanoid C-2 side-chain cleavage activities (leading to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, SU5402 mouse the

first benzoate product formed in the MBALD pathway) were compared in elicited roots, non-elicited roots and glyphosate-treated elicited roots at different concentrations of glyphosate. It was observed that glyphosate treatment, in addition to 25% suppressions of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and C2 chain-cleavage enzyme activities as compared to elicited one, also resulted in around 40% suppression of MBALD accumulation, when used in conjunction with yeast extract treatment; in contrast, shikimic acid content was increased as compared to glyphosate untreated ones. These findings suggest that shikimate pathway plays an important role in modulating MBALD biosynthesis in H. indicus roots. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“P>The present study aimed to improve the rate of detection of blood-borne microbes by using PCRs with pan-bacterial and Candida specificity. Seventeen per cent of the blood samples (n = 178) collected from 107 febrile patients with haematological malignancies were positive using standard culture (BacT/Alert system).

By combining multiple crossing junctions, it

is possible

By combining multiple crossing junctions, it

is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex Napabucasin dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates.”
“Among the tumors of the epidermal appendages, only rare tumors have been proved as differentiating in the direction of the nail. Beside onychomatricoma, we report a new matrical tumor of the nail: onychocytic matricoma (acanthoma of the nail matrix producing onychocytes). The main differential diagnosis of onychocytic matricoma is seborrheic

keratosis. However, if attention is paid to the nature of the different layers of the tumor and the peculiar microanatomy of the nail matrix, the differentiation is not difficult. Onychocytic matricoma is a localized (monodactylous) longitudinal melanonychia which is slightly raised. The term pachymelanonychia MAPK inhibitor is used to define the 2 clinical features of the tumor. Pachyonychia indicate a localized thickening of the nail plate, and melanonychia indicate its longitudinal pigmented band. Onychocytic matricoma is composed of a basal compartment learn more with a varying admixture of prekeratogenous cells and keratogenous cells. Endokeratinization originating in the deep portion of the tumor and nests of prekeratogenous and keratogenous cells in concentric arrangement are a characteristic feature. Three major patterns can be identified as follows: acanthotic, papillomatous, keratogenous type with

retarded maturation. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed both in pigmented onychomatricoma and onychocytic matricoma, the term pachymelanonychia longitudinal could be proposed to specify clinically these 2 lesions, which the clinician sometimes mistakes for melanoma.”
“Under-representation of ethnic minority groups in bariatric surgery rates has been reported in the USA. Ethnic minorities form 7.9 % of the UK population, but comparable data on provision of bariatric surgery for these groups have not previously been reported in the UK. We calculated an estimate of rates of bariatric surgery amongst ethnic groups in the UK and Ireland using data from the National Bariatric Surgery Registry and census data from the UK and Ireland. The number of procedures recorded per 1,000 morbidly obese patients was 5.2 for Caucasian patients, 5.2 for Asian patients and 5.2 for Black patients. The identical rates across different ethnic groups suggest that bariatric services are provided equitably in the UK, with ethnic minority groups achieving equal access.

Phenolphthalein and spectrophotometry were used to determine the

Phenolphthalein and spectrophotometry were used to determine the content of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) in products. By changing environmental conditions and types of adsorbents, the adsorption capacities of polymers on basic fuchsine were studied. The results indicate that the absorption capacity was decreased accordingly when the pH value was reduced. The increase of temperature had no obvious influence on improving PLX3397 cost the absorption capacity from 40 to 60 degrees C. When the mass

ratio of chloropropyl hydroxyl GG to beta-CDMs to sodium carbonate was 0.6 : 0.8 : 1.0, with the reaction time of 2 h, the best adsorption capacity of 24 mg/g was achieved; this was in accordance with the results of the measurement of the content of beta-CD in the products. The higher content of beta-CDM

was beneficial for improving the absorption capacity. By comparing its properties with the absorption G418 datasheet capacity of traditional flocculating agents polyacrylamide and polaluminum chloride, the best absorption results for GG bonded with beta-CDMs were obtained. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2250-2256, 2012″
“Introduction and objectives: We report our experience in the surgical correction of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), with an emphasis on the coronary reimplantation technique and its outcome.

Methods: We designed a retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive study that included patients with ALCAPA who underwent surgery involving coronary reimplantation over a 19-year period. We describe perioperative details such as variations in the surgical technique

and the postoperative outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality.

Results: learn more We studied 15 patients (86% females) with a mean age of 6.2 years (range, 2 months to 24 years). Heart failure was the principal cause for hospitalization in 80% of our patients. Left ventricular dysfunction was present in 67%, and 27% had significant or severe mitral valve regurgitation. We describe 3 surgical techniques for coronary reimplantation, the choice of which depends on the site of origin of the anomalous left coronary artery. Four patients underwent an additional mitral valve procedure. The most common immediate postoperative complications were low cardiac output (38%), pleural effusion (17%), and transient ischemia (13%). There was no operative or medium-term mortality.

Conclusions: Coronary reimplantation is the technique of choice for surgical correction of ALCAPA due to the excellent postoperative survival and low operative morbidity. (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies have reported decision-making deficits in patients affected by mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

6 days There was no significant difference in procedure type bas

6 days. There was no significant difference in procedure type based on geographic region or age. The Northeast had the lowest rate

of posterior surgery and highest rate of anterior only procedures. The Midwest had the highest rate of anterior-posterior surgery and Northeast had the lowest. Patients age 10 to 14 had the highest rate of posterior only procedures, those age 20 to 24 had the lowest. Patients age 15 to 19 were more likely to have anterior only procedures. Taken together, anterior-posterior and posterior interbody techniques were most common in patients age 20 to 24. Inpatient hospital charges varied significantly Saracatinib manufacturer from region to region. Charges were highest in the West ($152,637) and lowest in the South ($103,256). There was no significant difference in PPAC based on age. LOS was significantly highest in the Midwest (6.5 days) and lowest in the South (5.2 days). LOS was significantly higher in the oldest age group compared with the younger groups.

Conclusion. PPAC and LOS varied by region. Although there was no significant difference in treatment type based on age or region, older patients tended to have more complex procedures and a higher LOS. This did not translate into a significant change in PPAC

based on age. These data point to the need for further studies examining reasons for geographic variability in idiopathic scoliosis surgeries.”
“To improve the performance of ion-exchange polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, an electrical pathway material for enhancing the surface adhesion between the membrane Linsitinib and the metal electrodes of the IPMC was studied. As an efficient electrical pathway material, polyaniline nanorods (PANI-NRs) doped with p-toluene sulfonic acid (TSA) were synthesized with a template-free method. The factors affecting polyaniline morphology were studied with various dopant concentrations and oxidant feeding rates. Highly conductive PANI-NRs were formed when they were synthesized with ammonium persulfate at a 5.0 mL/min oxidant feeding rate and doped with 0.125M TSA. The conductivity

of the PANI-NRs was 1.15 x 10(-1) S/cm, and their diameters and lengths were 120-180 nm and 0.6-2 mu m, respectively. To apply the membrane as an actuator, perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion)/PANI-NR blends were prepared by solution blending and casting. The actuating ability of the three-layered membrane consisting of Nafion/PANI-NR blends was then examined and compared with that of Nafion only. The actuating ability of the IPMC was improved when Nafion/PANI-NRs were used as electrical pathways. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 2601-2609, 2010″
“The objective of the study was to validate the Spanish version of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP). An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out on patients with epilepsy treated with a stable dose of antiepileptic drugs.

Laparoscopic nephrectomy is both operatively and oncologically sa

Laparoscopic nephrectomy is both operatively and oncologically safe in T-1 and T-2 disease, and although technically more demanding, it is also safe in selected T-3 disease.”
“Recently, aqueous solutions polluted

by BPA have been bioremediated by us using laccase immobilized on hydrophobic membranes in non-isothermal bioreactors. BPA degradation was checked using analytical methods. To assess in vitro the occurred bioremediation, the proliferation and viability indexes of MCF-7 cells incubated in the presence of aqueous solutions of BPA, or of enzyme-treated BPA solutions, have been measured as a function of the initial BPA concentration. The results demonstrated that:

i) at each initial BPA concentration used, both the proliferation and viability indexes are a function of the duration of enzyme treatment:

ii) proliferation and Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor viability are uncoupled biological processes with respect to BPA enzyme treatment.

Non-isothermal bioreactors are a useful tool for the bioremediation of aqueous solutions polluted by BPA, which is an example of an endocrine disruptor that belongs to the alkyl phenol family. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Clinical symptoms in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (LDS) vary from predominantly radiating pain to severe mechanical low back pain. We examined whether the outcome of surgery

for LDS varied depending on the predominant baseline symptom and the treatment administered [decompression with fusion (D&F) or decompression Selleckchem GSK690693 alone (D)].

213 consecutive patients (69 +/- A 9 years; 155f, 58 m) participated. Inclusion criteria were LDS, maximum three affected levels, no previous surgery at the affected level, and D (N = 56) or D&F (N = 157) as the operative procedure. Pre-op and at 12 months’ follow-up ACY-738 (FU), patients completed the multidimensional Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) including 0-10 leg-pain (LP)

and LBP scales. At 12 months’ FU, patients rated global outcome which was then dichotomised into “”good”" and “”poor”".

Pre-operatively, LBP and COMI scores were significantly worse (p < 0.05) in the D&F group than in the D group. The improvement in COMI at 12 months’ FU was significantly greater for D&F than for D (p < 0.001) and was not influenced by the patient’s declared “”main problem”" at baseline (back pain, leg pain, or neurological disturbances) (p > 0.05). There was a higher proportion (p = 0.01) of “”good”" outcomes at 12 months’ FU in D&F (86%) than in D (70%). Multiple regression analysis, controlling for possible confounders, revealed treatment group to be the only significant predictor of outcome (adding fusion = better outcome).

Our study indicated that LDS patients showed better patient-based outcome with instrumented fusion and decompression than with decompression alone, regardless of baseline symptoms.

The PIRA-PCR strategy developed for the identification of the new

The PIRA-PCR strategy developed for the identification of the new

mutation L1014S was found specific as evident from DNA sequencing results of respective samples. Since L1014S was found tightly linked to V1010L, no separate assay was developed for the latter mutation. Screening of population using PIRA-PCR assays for 1014S and ARMS for 1014F alleles revealed the presence of all the three amino acid substitutions in low frequency.

Conclusions: This is the first report of the presence of L1014S (homologous to the kdr-e in An. gambiae) Smoothened Agonist and a novel mutation V1010L (resulting from G-to-T or -C transversions) in the VGSC of An. culicifacies in addition to the previously described mutation L1014F. The V1010L substitution was tightly linked to L1014S substitution. A new PIRA-PCR strategy was developed selleck products for the detection of L1014S mutation and the linked V1010L mutation.”
“Species loss in ecosystems can lead to secondary extinctions as a result of consumer-resource relationships and other species interactions. We compare levels of secondary extinctions in communities generated by four structural

food-web models and a fifth null model in response to sequential primary species removals. We focus on various aspects of food-web structural integrity including robustness, community collapse and threshold periods, and how these features relate to assumptions underlying different models, different species loss sequences and simple measures of diversity and complexity. Hierarchical feeding, a fundamental characteristic of food-web structure, appears to impose a cost in terms of robustness and other aspects of structural integrity. However, exponential-type link distributions, also characteristic of more realistic models, generally confer greater structural robustness than the less skewed link distributions of less realistic

models. In most cases for the more realistic models, increased robustness and decreased levels of web collapse are associated with increased diversity, measured as species richness S, Selleck LOXO-101 and increased complexity, measured as connectance C. These and other results, including a surprising sensitivity of more realistic model food webs to loss of species with few links to other species, are compared with prior work based on empirical food-web data.”
“The optimum conditions for extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and for enhancing the antioxidant activity from light and dark dried figs were determined. The effects of the solvent nature (acetone, ethanol, methanol, or water), solvent concentration (20-80%), acetic acid concentration (0-2%), extraction temperature (25-70 degrees C), extraction time (0.5-4 h), sample to solvent ratio (1/25-1/100), and number of extractions (1, 2, and 3) were determined. The TPC was used to identify antioxidant compounds. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate antioxidant activity.

This study included 100 patients with 103 MCAB aneurysms who unde

This study included 100 patients with 103 MCAB aneurysms who underwent a simple coiling procedure without the adjuvant use of stents or balloons. The angiographic clinical outcomes and recurrence of these aneurysms were evaluated.

Of the 103 aneurysms, 102 (99.0 %) aneurysms were successfully treated with simple coiling. One patient died from the consequences of a procedural aneurysm rupture. The treatment-associated permanent morbidity and mortality rates were 0 and 1.0 %, respectively. Post-coiling angiograms showed 28 complete occlusions (27.2 %), 60 neck remnants (58.3

%), and 14 partial occlusions (13.6 %). A follow-up angiography (median Thiazovivin cell line duration, 30 months; range, 3-73 months) was performed in 80 lesions.

Recanalisation was found in 28 lesions (35.0 %), of which 6 were complete occlusions, 18 were neck remnants, and 4 were partial occlusions, as determined by post-coiling angiograms. Among these lesions, 14 major recurrences were retreated with coiling (n = 12) and clipping (n = 2) without complications. Age (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95 % confidence interval [CI], -0.11 to -0.01; p = 0.03), the presence of a rupture (OR, 3.89; 95 % CI, 0.12 to 2.60; p = 0.03), and a wide aneurysm neck (OR, 6.40; 95 % CI, 0.57 to 3.14; p = 0.005) were significantly associated with the aneurysm recurrence, as determined by multivariable analyses.

Our study suggests that simple coiling of MCAB aneurysms is feasible and safe; however, it has limitations in durability, particularly in ruptured or wide-necked aneurysms and in young patients.”
“Purpose: The incidence of hospital acquired adverse events in radical cystectomy and their implications for hospital outcomes and costs remain poorly described. We describe the incidence of hospital acquired adverse events Omipalisib cost in radical cystectomy, and characterize its relationship with in-hospital mortality, length of stay and hospitalization costs.

Materials and Methods: We identified 10,856 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer at 1,175 hospitals in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from

2001 to 2008. We used hospital claims to identify adverse events for accidental puncture, decubitus ulcer, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, surgical site infection and sepsis. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to test the associations of hospital acquired adverse events with mortality, predicted prolonged length of stay and total hospitalization costs.

Results: Hospital acquired adverse events occurred in 11.3% of all patients undergoing radical cystectomy (1,228). Adverse events were associated with a higher odds of in-hospital death (OR 8.07, p < 0.001), adjusted prolonged length of stay (41.3%) and total costs ($54,242 vs $26,306; p < 0.001) compared to no adverse events on multivariate analysis.