The estimated multi-locus outcrossing rate ™ for M. huberi was high (0.98 ± 0.111) suggesting that the species is predominantly allogamous. M. huberi showed high levels of genetic diversity, however this species also presents a high rate of endogamy, i.e. a deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, most likely caused by crossing among related individuals
(tm − ts = 0.277) and a high spatial genetic structure up to 450 m. Pollen flow was the most restricted among the studied species. These results suggest that in situ conservation management programs for the species should include large areas, avoiding fragmentation to minimize isolation by distance effects. Azevedo et al. (2007) recommended reduced impact selective logging, and that removal of trees should be randomized to avoid fragmentation buy ABT-263 and sub-population losses. The significant spatial genetic structure observed in the population (as a whole) at a radius of 450 m was not detected after exploitation, with the genetic structure observed
in commercially exploited trees lost. There appears to be a significant difference in the pattern of genetic diversity and endogamy in the new generation. The fixation index of 0.26 in seedlings before logging was decreased to 0.06 after logging (unpublished data). AZD9291 cost Dipteryx odorata pollen from inside the plot originated from relatively few pollen donors per mother tree (2.6 trees pre-logging, 1.7 post-logging) relative to the total number of potential pollen donors (pre-logging 66, post-logging 39). Strong asynchrony in flowering is likely to be limiting reproduction, and this aspect has serious consequences for species being managed by selective logging due to the possibility of a mother tree having no breeding partners if the area being managed is a 500 ha (or smaller) fragment with no possibility of pollen flow from other fragments ( Vinson, 2009). Hymenea courbaril showed high pollen flow movement with low biparental inbreeding selleck chemical (tm − ts = 0.096), however, a high spatial genetic structure was observed (Fij = 0.227 up to 100 m and Fij = 0.139 up to 300 m), possibly as a consequence of gravity
seed dissemination ( Lacerda et al., 2008). The results suggest that logging produced an increase in the number of pollen donors and further pollen dispersal. Logging may also result in a significant reduction in the genetic diversity within the progeny of the species and an increase in self-fertilization ( Carneiro et al., 2011). Symphonia globulifera showed a distinct spatial genetic structure (θxy = 0.119 up to 50 m; comparable to that of half sibs with θxy = 0.125) possibly as a consequence of gravity seed dissemination ( Carneiro et al., 2007). Although S. globulifera has a low number of pollen donors (Nep = 2.4–4.0), low selfing and biparental inbreeding rates (ts = 0.0–0.11 and tm − ts = 0.063–0.093, respectively) were detected.