Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding any risks Akt inhibitor that fibrinolytic therapy may pose to pregnant mothers and their fetuses; however, we believe that it is not justified to withhold fibrinolytic therapy from pregnant patients if effective noninvasive alternatives are lacking and this approach can avoid surgical intervention. None. “
“A 66-year old female was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in June 2009. At diagnosis she had an IgG kappa paraprotein of 95.6 g/L
and bone marrow histology showed 90% infiltration with plasma cells. She completed 8 months of Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide and Dexamethasone (CTD) chemotherapy following which her end-of-treatment bone marrow trephine biopsy showed no detectable plasma cells and her paraprotein had reduced significantly to 6.8 g/L. She remained in remission until November 2010 when it was noted that her IgG paraprotein was steadily rising (46.2 g/L). However, repeat bone marrow
trephine biopsy at this time did not show any evidence of disease recurrence. In December 2010 the patient presented to hospital with a one week history of shortness of breath and right sided chest pain. Chest radiography confirmed a large right sided pleural effusion (Fig. 1). An intercostal drain was inserted and 2 L of blood-stained pleural fluid drained. Biochemical analysis of the pleural fluid confirmed that it was an exudate, (protein 34, LDH 924, glucose 3.4), and further pleural fluid was sent for culture and cytology. A staging CT, (neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis), performed following drainage of the pleural fluid, revealed marked right sided TSA HDAC manufacturer pleural thickening (Fig. 2). Radiologically the CT appearances were consistent with a mesothelioma. A CT guided pleural biopsy was performed 10 days later. The patient had become increasingly dyspnoeic again and her CT images at this time showed marked progression of the pleural thickening with recurrence of the pleural effusion. Following the pleural biopsy the patient had an indwelling tunnelled chest drain inserted allowing her effusion to be drained on a weekly basis in the community. Unexpectedly, the histology from the pleural biopsy was consistent with
a pleural plasmacytoma and not a primary pleural malignancy. Furthermore, the cytology from 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase the pleural fluid confirmed the presence of plasma cells. The diagnosis of myelomatous pleural effusion secondary to a pleural plasmacytoma was made in this patient. This is an unusual site for disease recurrence in multiple myeloma and was undoubtedly the source of this patient’s previously unexplained rising paraprotein. The patient was commenced on second-line chemotherapy, (Cyclophosphamide, Velcade (Bortezomib) and Dexamethasone; CVD), to which she initially had a good response. The pleural fluid did not re-accumulate for several weeks and her tunnelled chest drain was removed. However in March 2011 she returned with increasing shortness of breath and right-sided pleuritic chest pain.