results indi cate a clear enrichment in the pancreas Tenatoprazole? of genes anno tated as being related to MYC function from previous publications, including MYC target genes from the MYC Target Gene Database, genes indicative of a MYC induced oncogenic signature from Blid et al. and genes up regulated in the studies of Coller et al. Schumacher et al. Yu et al. and Lee et al. Similarly, down regulated genes showed enrichment with down regulated genes from the study of Yu et al. In comparison, genes up regulated in the skin are enriched for genes also found to be up regulated in the studies of Coller et al. Yu et al. and Zeller et al. while MYC target genes from the MYC Target Gene Database, genes indicative of a MYC induced oncogenic signature from Blid et al. were enriched with an FDR value 0. 017.
This suggests that the gene expression signature identified in both the pancreas and skin is indicative of changes in expression related to MYC function. Cell cycle response following MYC activation One of the key functions of the MYC onco protein is promotion of cell cycle progression, particularly G1 S phase transition. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Activation of MYC in supraba sal keratinocytes and pancreatic b cells has been previously shown to initiate G1 S transition Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in target cells, and this was seen through immunohisto logical staining with anti Ki67 antibodies, as well as in the response detected in genes relating to cell cycle progression by gene ontology classification. A subset of some interesting genes from this list is shown in Table 1.
Activation of MYC in the b cells resulted in a change in expression of 213 cell cycle and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries proliferation related genes within 8 hours of MYC activation, with 116 genes up regulated and 101 genes down regulated. Pcna, a MYC target gene associated with the cell cycle, was expressed in both pancreatic b cells and SBK throughout most of the time course, with Cdc25a expressed only in the former. In b cells, cyclin genes Ccnd1, Ccnd2 and Ccne2, whose products are necessary for G1 S phase transition in the cell cycle, were up regulated within 4 hours of MYC activation. Cyclin genes Ccna2, Ccnb1 and Ccne1, whose products are involved in later G1 S phase and G2 M phase cell cycle Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries events, were up regulated greater than 3 fold sub sequently at 8 hours.
Activation of MYC in the SBK resulted in a less pro minent cell cycle response compared to b cells, with a change in expression of 144 cell cycle and prolifera tion related transcripts within 8 hours of MYC activa tion 73 genes up regulated and 74 genes down regulated. Brefeldin_A Of G1 S phase cell cycle genes, Ccnd2 and Ccnd3 showed a 2 fold increase in expression at 8 hours. In contrast to b cells, later cell cycle genes such as Ccna2 and Ccne2 were either down regulated or unchanged in SBK. Interest Sorafenib Raf-1 ingly, the Ccnb1 gene whose product, cyclin B1, is involved predominantly in later cell cycle events, was down regulated 2 fold in SBK early in the time course. Cyclin B1 interacts with Cdc2a to form the mitotic initiation c