In one condition, different features on different parts of the ob

In one condition, different features on different parts of the object were highlighted for infants EX 527 in the reception and the experimental rooms. In the other condition, infants’ attention was drawn to the object in both locations by verbal and gestural means without a single, specific feature being highlighted. Such manipulations served to enhance infants’ representation of the object without helping them track the object’s identity across its dislocations. If infants’ difficulty responding to absent reference is caused by their confusion about object identity, they should only find the object in the condition in which the same feature is highlighted in both rooms. On the other

hand, if infants simply need a stronger and richer representation of the target object, they should locate the hidden object in all three conditions. Fifty-six 12-month-olds participated

(M = 12 months 15 days; range 11 months 23 days—12 months 29 days; 28 girls). Seven additional infants were omitted because of parental interference (2), failure to attend to the target objects (2), lost videotape (2), and sibling interference (1). Participants were primarily Caucasian and from middle-class families. They were recruited from a city area by phone from a database of interested families and were full-term at birth, normally developing and hearing, with English as their primary language. Two ottomans that were identical in shape and size (one brown, one black) were used as hiding locations. Target objects were two stuffed animals from the laboratory. One stuffed animal (a pig) was shown to infants before the Panobinostat clinical trial experiment and thus was familiar when the experiment started. The other stuffed animal (a dog) was not shown to infants before the experiment and thus was new when the experiment

started. Infants in a previous study using the same test objects were equally likely to respond to the dog and pig. The toy pig had two characteristic features. First, there were yellow threads on the side that had remained after a label was cut off. Second, yellow threads were attached to the back of the neck for the purposes of the study. During the experiment, the researcher directed infants’ ID-8 attention to these features in different conditions. Every infant participated in a new toy and familiar toy condition. The familiar toy condition will be described first. There were three between-subjects variants of the familiar toy condition: identifying feature, nonidentifying feature, and no feature. The three conditions varied according to which feature of the familiar object the experimenter highlighted during familiarization. The familiar toy was introduced to infants in a familiarization phase. This phase was held in the reception room and started after infants were acquainted with the experimenter and felt comfortable. During familiarization, the experimenter and baby played with the pig for 3–4 min.

Few reports controversially attribute it to heparin locks and abs

Few reports controversially attribute it to heparin locks and absence of exit-site purse-string suturing. It is also unclear whether CB is a risk factor for catheter related infection (CRI) and performance. We therefore studied factors associated with CB in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort and its association with these complications. Methods: This was a retrospective

analysis of 239 consecutive primary internal jugular TDC inserted in 212 patients by nephrologists at a single center over 3 years. All TDC GSK2126458 mouse were inserted under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Guide-wire exchanges were excluded. Demographic, co-morbid, laboratory parameters, haemodialysis and TDC data were obtained from a prospectively collected database. Bleeding was defined as per American Society of Diagnostic Interventional Nephrology guidelines. Cases were classified into 2 groups: A (CB within 48 hours after insertion) versus B (no bleeding). Categorical and continuous Apoptosis antagonist data were evaluated by Chi-square test and t-test and presented as frequency/percentage and mean ± standard deviation respectively.

Results: Demographic, co-morbid, laboratory parameters, antiplatelet, purse string utilization, heparin lock dose, haemodialysis and TDC characteristics in groups A and B are outlined in table 1. CRI and catheter patency rate at 48 hours and 30 days were comparable (table 2). 2 patients had a left brachiocephalic vein

rupture with 1 requiring stenting. Only avoidance of antiplatelet was almost significantly associated with no CB (OR 0.53, CI 0.27–1.05). Conclusion: This study refutes previous established associations of CB with high heparin concentrations Dynein and purse-string suturing. There may be an association of CB with antiplatelet use. CB does not predispose to early CRI and catheter dysfunction. However larger controlled studies are required to further allay these controversies. ARORA PUNEET1, SINGLA MANIKANT2, SANDHU JASVINDER SINGH3 1Assistant Professor-Nephrology, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana; 2Assistant Professor-Endocrinology, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana; 3Professor-Nephrology, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana Introduction: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is related to physical and psychosocial health with significant impact on quality of life (QOL). Studies addressing this issue in Indian patients with advanced kidney diseases are scarce. We sought to assess the prevalence of SD in patients on chronic dialysis and determine whether patients discuss this problem with their care providers. Methods: 100 male and 100 female end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance haemodialysis, at least twice per week, for more than 3 months were enrolled. Unmarried, widowed and divorcee subjects were excluded. In addition, an age matched married control group of 30 subjects of each sex were also enrolled.

28 However, treatment with anti-TLT-2 (MIH49) mAb as well as anti

28 However, treatment with anti-TLT-2 (MIH49) mAb as well as anti-B7-H3 mAb at both sensitization and challenge of hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity efficiently inhibits ear swelling.28 We therefore examined the effects of anti-B7-H3 (MIH35) or anti-TLT-2 (MIH49) mAb treatment on the growth

of parental and B7-H3-transduced SCCVII tumours. Treatment with anti-B7-H3 mAb significantly enhanced (P = 0·0005) tumour growth of parental SCCVII, but similar treatment with anti-B7-H3 mAb did not alter the reduced tumour growth induced by B7-H3 transduction (Fig. 5b). Similar to treatment with anti-B7-H3 mAb, anti-TLT-2 mAb treatment also enhanced SCCVII tumour growth (Fig. 5c), suggesting the involvement of the B7-H3–TLT-2 pathway in parental SCCVII tumour-mediated immunity. Treatment with anti-TLT-2 mAb in B7-H3/SCCVII-inoculated mice did not reverse the eradication of tumour induced by B7-H3 transduction. It is unlikely that the administration of anti-TLT-2 mAb depleted the TLT-2-expressing target cells, because no differences were observed in the ratios of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, CD45RB+ B cells, CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ dendritic cells (data not shown). Similar results were obtained by the treatment with either anti-B7-H3 or GSK2126458 datasheet anti-TLT-2 mAb in B7-H3/EL-4

or B7-H3/P815 tumour cell inoculation (data not shown). If the B7-H3–TLT-2 pathway is involved in anti-tumour immunity, T cells in tumour-bearing mice should express the TLT-2 counterpart receptor. We examined TLT-2 expression on T cells in regional lymph nodes (RLNs) and TIL 7 days after stiripentol either parental SCCVII

or B7-H3/SCCVII tumour inoculation. In intact LNs, TLT-2 was preferentially expressed on CD8+ T cells, but not on CD4+ T cells, and the expression levels on CD8+ T cells were not changed in the RLNs of both types of tumour-inoculated mice (Fig. 6a, left panels). Histological analyses of the tumour-inoculated tissues showed more abundant lymphocyte infiltration in the periphery of and inside the B7-H3/SCCVII tumour mass compared with the parental SCCVII-inoculated tissues (Fig. 7). In flow cytometric analyses, TIL from parental SCCVII-inoculated sites consistently expressed TLT-2. Surprisingly, in the TIL from B7-H3/SCCVII tumour-inoculated sites, only a sub-population of CD8+ TIL expressed TLT-2, and the residual population did not express TLT-2. TLT-2− CD8+ TIL revealed a larger cell size, as assessed by forward scatter on flow cytometry, than TLT-2+ CD8+ TIL (data not shown). To investigate whether the down-regulation of TLT-2 was induced after activation, the levels of TLT-2 expression in CD8+ T cells stimulated with B7-H3+ tumour cells were compared between CD69+, CD69–, CD25+ and CD25– fractions. TLT-2 expression in the CD69+ CD8+ TIL fraction was lower than that in the CD69– fraction (Fig. 6b), In addition, OT-I CD8+ T cells cultured with B7-H3/E.


After Selleckchem ACP-196 transplantation the quantity of TFH-cells was the highest in patients with pre-existent DSA. In kidney biopsies taken during rejection, TFH-cells co-localized with B cells and immunoglobulins in follicular-like structures. Our data on TFH-cells in kidney-transplantation demonstrate that TFH-cells may mediate humoral alloreactivity, which is also seen in the immunosuppressed milieu. “
“Compared with HLA-DR molecules, the specificities of HLA-DP and HLA-DQ molecules have only been studied to a limited extent. The description of the binding motifs has been mostly anecdotal and does not provide a quantitative

measure of the importance of each position in the binding core and the relative weight of different amino acids at a given position. The recent publication of larger data sets of peptide-binding to

DP and DQ molecules opens the possibility of using data-driven bioinformatics methods to accurately define the binding motifs of these molecules. Using the Rapamycin in vivo neural network-based method NNAlign, we characterized the binding specificities of five HLA-DP and six HLA-DQ among the most frequent in the human population. The identified binding motifs showed an overall concurrence with earlier studies but revealed subtle differences. The DP molecules revealed a large overlap in the pattern of amino acid preferences at core positions, with conserved hydrophobic/aromatic anchors at P1 and P6, and an additional hydrophobic anchor at P9 in some variants. These results confirm the existence of a previously hypothesized supertype encompassing the most common DP alleles. Conversely, the binding motifs for DQ molecules appear more divergent, displaying unconventional anchor positions and in some cases rather unspecific amino acid preferences. The MHC performs an essential role in the cellular immune system, and regulates

immune responses through presentation of processed antigens to T lymphocytes. The MHC is also widely studied because of its association with many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease, CHIR-99021 research buy and certain MHC alleles have been linked to susceptibility to infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV (reviewed in ref. 1). Unlike MHC class I, which samples peptides from cytosolic proteins, MHC class II molecules present short peptide sequences derived from extracellular proteins. Human MHC class II molecules are heterodimers consisting of an α-chain and a β-chain encoded on chromosome 6 in one of three HLA loci: DR, DP and DQ. Compared with DR molecules, the specificities of DP and DQ molecules have only been studied to a limited extent, and their binding motifs are poorly characterized and understood.

8 The use of herbal medicine has increased in developed countries

8 The use of herbal medicine has increased in developed countries.9 Alternative remedies are perceived to be innocuous and may provide placebo effects from the rituals associated with their ingestion.10 Use of herbal medicines increased in the USA by 25% between 1990 and 1997.11 Approximately 10% of US adults were using herbal remedies in 1999. Approximately $US 4.2 out of the $US 17.8 billion spent on ‘dietary supplements’ in 2001 were for herbs and other botanical remedies.12 Approximately $US 5 billion worth of over-the-counter MLN0128 herbal medicines were sold in the European countries in 2003.13 Herbal medicine accounted for approximately

26% of all alternative and complimentary medicine use in Australia.14 The global annual turnover in herbal medicines is estimated at $US60 billion, representing approximately 20% of the overall drug market.15 The nephrotoxic potential of herbal remedies is being increasingly recognized.3,16,17 Causality is suspected on the basis of a temporal association between the intake of an agent and the injury. This is easier to establish in the case of acute toxicity where the interval between intake and presentation is short and the history of use of the offending agent is easy to recall, but harder in chronic

diseases that progress slowly. Remote exposure may be forgotten or even denied for fear of social stigmatization. Herbal toxicity can develop in any of the following situations:3,18,19 Dabrafenib (i) consumption of a herb with unknown toxicity; (ii) incorrect identification leading to substitution of an innocuous herb with a toxic one; (iii) deliberate or inadvertent contamination with nephrotoxic non-herbal drugs (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents), pesticides or chemicals (e.g. heavy metal contamination from soil or water); (iv) potentiation of the toxic effect

of a conventional drug due to interaction with a compound else present in the herb; and (v) consumption of meat from an animal that has grazed on toxic plants (e.g. hemlock). The kidney is the route of excretion of most of the substances present in the herbs. The high blood flow rate and large endothelial surface area of the kidneys ensures delivery of large amounts of toxin to the renal parenchyma. High concentrations may be reached in the medulla because of active tubular transport, especially during a state of fluid deprivation. Renal involvement associated with the use of traditional medicinal products can take several forms,16–18 including acute kidney injury, tubular function defects, dyselectrolytaemias, systemic hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal papillary necrosis, urolithiasis and urothelial cancer.

pneumoniae The basal levels of cytokines and

the ones in

pneumoniae. The basal levels of cytokines and

the ones induced by the oral and nasal administration of the probiotic before immunization with recombinant strains (day 0) were determined. With regard to the IL-2 and IFN-γ Th1-type cytokines (Fig. 3a, b), the mice that received L. casei by the oral and nasal routes before administration of the vaccine (day 0) showed a significant increase in IFN-γ. Oral administration of Lc induced greater production of IL-2 compared to the control that received PBS. On days 28 and 42 there was a significant increase in this website IL-2 and IFN-γ in BAL in all the groups treated compared to the control. LL + Lc (O) and D-LL + Lc (O) induced the highest level of IL-2, which would indicate that the probiotic influenced the increase in this cytokine compared to administration of LL [on day 42, LL versus D-LL + Lc (O): P < 0·001, LL versus LL + Lc (O): P < 0·01) and D-LL (D-LL + Lc (O) versus D-LL: P < 0·01, LL + Lc (O) versus D-LL: P < 0·001]. The concentration of IFN-γ in BAL reached highest levels in the group that received LL + Lc (O), followed by D-LL + Lc (N), with significant differences between them (LL + Lc versus selleck inhibitor D-LL + Lc (N): P < 0·01). With regard to the induction of the Th2-type cytokine IL-4, oral and nasal administration of Lc before immunization

with recombinant vaccine (day 0) induced a significant increase in IL-4 in BAL compared to

the control (Fig. 4a). Two weeks after the second (day 28) and third immunizations (day 42) with the recombinant strain, there was a significant increase in IL-4 in all experimental groups compared to the control (day 0). On days 28 and 42, the live and the inactivated vaccine associated with the probiotic strain administered by the oral and nasal routes induced high IL-4 levels in BAL compared HSP90 to both the LL group [day 42, LL versus LL + Lc (O): P < 0·05) and the D-LL group (D-LL + Lc (O) versus D-LL: P < 0·01, D-LL versus D-LL + Lc (N): P < 0·01]. However, it should be noted that the highest levels of this cytokine, which is a marker of the stimulation of Th2 cells, was obtained with the nasal administration of the probiotic strain associated with the inactivated recombinant strain (P < 0·01). The regulatory cytokine IL-10 (Fig. 4b) showed variable behaviour depending upon the experimental group studied. The oral and nasal administrations of Lc induced high IL-10 concentrations compared to the control; however, the association of Lc (administered nasally) with D-LL (D-LL + Lc) induced a similar concentration to the control group on day 28. The highest IL-10 levels were reached 2 weeks after the second immunization (day 28) in the group that received D-LL (P < 0·001) compared to the control.

Conversely, does allopregnancy induce

Conversely, does allopregnancy induce Saracatinib in vitro tolerance to paternal alloantigens? Let us examine the definition of tolerance and its historical background, excluding the ‘TLX’ theory [trophoblast lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen-X].4 R.H. Schwartz5 defines it as ‘a physiologic state in which the immune system does not react destructively against the components of an organism that

harbours it, or against antigens that are introduced to it’. Jan Klein (Natural History of the Major Histocompatibility Complex) speaks of ‘inability of the immune system to respond specifically to a stimuli, to which it does have the potential to respond’. These reflect different perceptions: the first being selleck chemicals llc a total lack of response, as was found by early studies of high- or low-zone tolerance carried out by Mitchison, Chiller, Weigle, Kolsch. For review, see reference.6 These studies were carried out using soluble antigens, such as bovine serum albumin or human gamma globulin. Others see tolerance as a more complex phenomenon involving active mechanisms. Indeed, in Medawar’s classical transplantation tolerance,7 animals do not mount any response whatsoever towards the graft, even when

rechallenged at a spatial/temporal distance. Current thinking indicates a total absence of antigen-triggered cytokine production linked to clonal deletion. Tolerance is not long-lived in the case of induction in adults, as opposed to being lifelong for self-tolerance or neonatally alloinduced. With regard to mechanisms, tolerance can see more rely either passively on immediate clonal deletion or either after an immune response by exhaustive immunisation – mostly after exposure to infectious agents – or be actively acquired or maintained, by suppressor/regulatory T cells, this involving also ‘suppressor memory’.8 This memory explains the differences in primiparity versus multiparity for ‘tolerance’ or preeclampsia.

For transplantation, Hasek observed ‘split tolerance to living cells’, characterised by a total lack of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) but the presence of an alloantibody response.9 This concept applies rather well to pregnancy.10 Moreover, in enhancement/facilitation phenomenon, continuous coexistence of antibodies and CTLs can be demonstrated.11 But concepts of antibody-mediated self-tolerance collapsed when Zinkernagel and Doherty demonstrated self-tolerance MHC restriction, as alloantibodies are unrestricted. For these ‘active’ processes, Schwartz’s definition is the closest and applies to pregnancy, still too often viewed as total anti-paternal unresponsiveness, despite evidence of immunotrophism.

Staining for cell surface markers was carried out on ice for 20 m

Staining for cell surface markers was carried out on ice for 20 min. The percentage of CD4+ T cells that had proliferated was determined by gating the CD4+CFSElow subset. The cell division index for different antigens (CDI) was calculated as follows: percentage of CD4+CFSElow cells in stimulated culture/percentage of CD4+CFSElow cells in unstimulated culture. Statistical analyses were signaling pathway conducted using GraphPad Prism version 5·0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). Fisher’s exact test and the two-tailed Mann–Whitney U-test was used as indicated. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to calculate the correlation between increase percentages

in TT stimulation and subjects’ age. P-values less than 0·05 were considered Rucaparib cell line significant. To investigate whether gliadin-specific CD4+ T cells are detectable in the peripheral blood of children with newly diagnosed CD we compared the T

cell responses of 20 CD children to those of 64 healthy controls carrying the CD-associated HLA-DQ alleles, DQ2 or DQ8. Freshly isolated PBMCs were stimulated with native gliadin and gTG as well as two synthetic gliadin peptides (Q12Y and P14Y) reported to contain major gliadin epitopes [5]. TTG, TT and PHA were used as control antigens. The CD4+ T cell proliferative response to the antigens was analysed by flow cytometry after 10 days’ incubation using the CFSE dilution assay [13]. Individual responses to an antigen were considered positive when the cell division index (CDI) was ≥2·0 and the difference in the percentage of CD4+CFSElow cells between stimulated and unstimulated cultures was at least 0·5%. With these criteria, 11 of 20 children

with CD (55%) had a positive response to gTG compared to 15 of 64 control children (23·4%) (P = 0·008; Fisher’s exact test) (Table 1). The average intensity of the proliferative responses to gTG was also significantly stronger in children with CD than in controls (Fig. 1) (P = 0·01; Mann–Whitney U-test). In contrast to gTG, T Tideglusib cells specific to native gliadin were detectable at comparable frequencies in children with CD (two of 19, 10·5%) and control children (13 of 64, 20·3%) (Table 1). Moreover, the intensity of proliferative responses to native gliadin did not differ between children with CD and healthy controls (Fig. 1). Importantly, when the proliferative responses to native gliadin and gTG were compared directly, children with CD clearly had stronger proliferative responses to gTG, whereas in the control group the responses to gTG did not differ from those against the native gliadin (Fig. 2). Taken together, these findings suggest that the deamidation of gliadin enhances peripheral blood CD4+ T cell responses in children with CD but not in healthy controls.

A number of Treg-associated

molecules, including the inhi

A number of Treg-associated

molecules, including the inhibitory molecules PD-1 and CTLA-4, as well as CD38 and CD25 were shown to be increased following exposure to 1α25VitD3, although the expression of the Treg-associated marker, GITR, and also CD62L, were inhibited by 1α25VitD3 (Fig. 3). We have previously shown that IL-10 expression is reduced when IL-10 signaling is neutralized in culture [12, 13]. Cells were stimulated in the absence or presence of 10−8 –10−6 M 1α25VitD3 together with either an anti-IL-10R antibody or the appropriate isotype control reagent. In a representative donor shown in Fig. 4A, a high frequency of Foxp3+ cells was observed following culture with 10−6 M 1α25VitD3 and the presence of anti-IL-10R antibody in culture did not alter this. In contrast, considerably less Foxp3+ Trichostatin A order cells were detected in cell cultures containing 10−7 M or 10−8 M 1α25VitD3, and the addition of anti-IL-10R to these cultures resulted in a marked increase in the frequency of Foxp3+ cells (Fig. 4A; mean data from four healthy donors depicted in Fig. 4C). These data were also replicated at the mRNA level using real time RT-PCR where addition of anti-IL-10R antibody resulted in a significant increase in Foxp3 transcripts, with a reciprocal decrease in IL-10 transcripts (Fig. 4B). To confirm these

findings of the effects of IL-10 on 1α25VitD3-enhanced Foxp3 expression, a complimentary approach was used. CD4+ T-cell stimulation cultures were established with high 10−6 M 1α25VitD3 in the Vincristine mouse presence or absence of recombinant IL-10. As predicted, the Thalidomide presence of IL-10 significantly inhibited the frequency of Foxp3+ T cells compared with 10−6

M 1α25VitD3 alone (Fig. 4D). TGF-β is required for the peripheral induction of Foxp3, both alone and in conjunction with retinoic acid (RA) [16-20]. Note in this study, no significant increase in Foxp3 expression was observed when exogenous TGF-β alone was added to cultures containing 10−6 M or 10−7 M 1α25VitD3 (data not shown). However, neutralization of endogenous TGF-β (by the addition of an antibody specific for TGF-β to the culture) decreased 1α25VitD3-enhanced Foxp3 expression (Supporting Information Fig. 1), suggesting a possible role for TGF-β. Human CD4+CD25high cells, which are largely Foxp3+, are known to lose expression of Foxp3 over time upon culture in vitro. To determine if 1α25VitD3 acted to maintain the expression of Foxp3 in this population, CD4+CD25high (>99% CD25+; 86% Foxp3+; Fig. 5A) T cells were isolated by cell sorting and cultured for 7 days with or without 1α25VitD3. The frequency of Foxp3+ cells diminished from 86 to 11.7% upon culture with anti-CD3 and low dose IL-2 alone, shown in a representative plot in Figure 5B.

Long- and short-lived PCs as well as other proliferating and rest

Long- and short-lived PCs as well as other proliferating and resting lymphocyte subpopulations in spleen and BM served as positive and negative controls for Brdu staining (Supporting Information

Fig. 1C and data not shown). Remarkably, BrdU-positive short-lived as well as BrdU-negative long-lived PCs were both detected in the kidneys of lupus mice with established nephritis (Fig. 1B). The frequency of renal long-lived PCs was even higher than the frequency of short-lived PCs (Fig. Maraviroc 1C). In contrast to the recent data generated by Espeli et al., which only suggested the presence of long-lived PCs in kidneys based on the absence of the cell cycle marker Ki67 on the majority of renal PCs 13, we have directly demonstrated using BrdU incorporation that a large proportion of renal PCs had not been in S phase for the previous 2 wk.

Taken together, these observations suggest that especially long-lived PCs contribute to the local antibody production in lupus nephritis. Our data are consistent with the concept that the inflammatory milieu supports the long-term survival of PCs, which either differentiate locally or migrate into the inflamed sites. It is yet unclear which factors within the inflamed kidneys are critical for the long-term survival of renal PCs; however, at least some well-known survival factors including IL-6 and TNF are locally expressed in lupus nephritis 14. Furthermore, aberrant expression of APRIL and BAFF by B cells including PCs in SLE may contribute to PC survival also in nephritic kidneys 9. In contrast to long-lived PCs within the BM and spleen, it is possible that long-lived PCs could be eliminated from inflamed organs by conventional immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory

drugs such as cyclophosphamide and glucosteroids, because conditional “inflammatory survival niches” may disappear due to treatment. Also, spontaneous resolution of inflammation might deprive local PCs from their inflammation-mediated survival factors and thereby reduce the transiently increased total PC number to normal homeostatic levels. OVA-specific PCs were detected within nephritic kidneys of NZB/W F1 mice a few weeks post immunization, Forskolin cost implying that migratory plasmablasts get recruited to the inflamed tissue, independently of their antigen specificity 6. Using ELISPOT we analyzed the total numbers of IgG-secreting cells and, in parallel, the numbers of cells secreting antibodies to dsDNA and nucleolin. Nucleolin is a protein forming ribonucleoprotein-particles, as it is the case with several other autoantigens in SLE. IgG antibodies to nucleolin are found in approximately 40% of SLE sera and are relatively specific for SLE [15, Wellmann et al., manuscript in preparation].