The MtaB-MtaC complex catalyses selleck inhibitor the cleavage of methanol (bound to MtaB) and the transfer of the methyl purchase Crizotinib group onto the cobalt of cob(I) alamin (bound to MtaC). The MtaA-MtaC complex catalyses methyl transfer from methyl-cob(III) alamin (bound to MtaC) Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to coenzyme M (bound to MtaA). The crystal structure of the MtaB-MtaC complex from M. barkeri has previously been determined. Here, the crystal structures of MtaA from M. mazei in a substrate-free but Zn2+-bound state and in complex with Zn2+ and coenzyme M (HS-CoM) are reported at resolutions of 1.8 and 2.1 angstrom, respectively. A search for homologous proteins revealed that MtaA exhibits 23% sequence identity to human uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase, which has also the highest structural similarity (r.m.
s.d. of 2.03 angstrom for 306 aligned amino acids).
The main structural feature of MtaA is a TIM-barrel-like fold, which is also found in all other zinc enzymes that Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries catalyse thiol-group alkylation. The active site of MtaA is situated at the narrow bottom of a funnel such that the thiolate group of HS-CoM points towards the Zn2+ ion. The Zn2+ ion in the active site of MtaA is coordinated tetrahedrally via His240, Cys242 and Cys319. In the substrate-free form the fourth ligand is Glu263. Binding of HS-CoM Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries leads to exchange of the O-ligand of Glu263 for the S-ligand of HS-CoM with inversion of the zinc geometry.
The interface between MtaA and MtaC for transfer of the methyl group from MtaC-bound methylcobalamin is most likely to be formed by the core complex of MtaB-MtaC and the N-terminal segment (a long loop containing Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries three alpha-helices and a beta-hairpin) of MtaA, which is not part of the TIM-barrel core structure of MtaA.
In Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the typical isoprenoid-biosynthesis Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries pathway, condensation of the universal C-5-unit Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) occurs via the common intermediates prenyl pyrophosphates (C-10-C-20). The diversity of isoprenoids reflects differences in chain length, cyclization and further additional modification after cyclization. In contrast, the biosynthesis of 2-methylisonorneol (2-MIB), which is responsible for taste and odour problems in drinking water, is unique in that it primes the enzymatic methylation of geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) before cyclization, which Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries is catalyzed by an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase (GPPMT).
The substrate of GPPMT contains a nonconjugated olefin and the reaction mechanism is expected to be similar to that of the steroid methyltransferase Checkpoint inhibitor Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries (SMT) family. Here, structural analysis of GPPMT in complex with its cofactor and substrate revealed the mechanisms selleck chemical of substrate recognition and possible enzymatic reaction. Using the structures of these complexes, methyl-group transfer and the subsequent proton-abstraction mechanism are discussed.