The appearance of nonequilibrium 1/f noise and its dependence on

The appearance of nonequilibrium 1/f noise and its dependence on bias have been associated with changes in the distribution of activation energies

in the underlying energy landscape. These changes have been correlated with bias induced changes in the intrinsic tunneling mechanism dominating dissipation in La0.82Ca0.18MnO3 at low temperatures. (C) 2011 American Institute JIB-04 inhibitor of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3567936]“
“The main purpose of this study was producing conductive wool fabric applying carbon nanotubes. Raw and oxidized wool samples were treated with carbon nanotubes in the impregnating bath in the presence of citric acid as a crosslinking agent and sodium hypophosphite as a catalyst while sonicating them in the ultrasonic bath. Electrical resistance, washing durability, and color variation of treated samples were assessed. Through MEK162 SEM images, the surface morphology of treated samples was studied confirming the surface coating through carbon nanotubes. According to the results, the electrical resistance of treated wool with carbon nanotubes reduced substantially. However, the single-walled carbon nanotubes are more useful to increase the conductivity. In addition, the

wool color changed into gray after the treatment. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3353-3358, 2011″
“Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for estimating pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and the variation in PBV throughout the cardiac cycle in experimental heart failure.

Materials and Methods: The animal care committee approved this prospective study. Seven pigs were studied before and after myocardial infarction. PBV measurement

was validated in a phantom and calculated as the product of cardiac output determined with velocity-encoded Anlotinib cell line MR imaging and the pulmonary transit time for an intravenous bolus of contrast material to pass through the pulmonary circulation. The difference in arterial and venous pulmonary flow during the cardiac cycle was integrated for calculation of the PBV variation (expressed as percentage of stroke volume). Differences were evaluated with the Wilcoxon test.

Results: Calculated and direct phantom measurements of PBV differed by a mean of 4% +/- 3 (standard deviation) (R(2) = 0.97, P < .001). Infarction induced a decrease in left ventricular stroke volume (44 mL +/- 6 vs 27 mL +/- 7; P = .02), ejection fraction (55% +/- 5 vs 41% +/- 4; P = .02), and PBV variation (61% +/- 12 vs 43% +/- 15; P = .04) but not PBV (225 mL +/- 23 vs 211 mL +/- 42; P = .50). The mean pulmonary artery pressure increased after infarction (19 mm Hg +/- 6 vs 27 mm Hg +/- 4; P =.04).

Conclusion: Following infarction, the PBV variation but not PBV decreased. PBV variation was the noninvasive measure exhibiting the greatest percentage of change following infarction.


is the first


is the first see more study in an Irish context, and one of few international studies, to demonstrate that an aggressive-coordinated approach to diabetic foot care is both cost effective and clinically efficient in reducing the burden of foot-related complications in a diabetic population.”
“Aim: To assess the relaxation effect of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor udenafil on the bladder and prostatic urethra and its therapeutic potentials for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: For the in vitro study, muscle strips from urinary bladder and urethra were prepared from male New Zealand rabbits. The strips were mounted in organ baths and connected to force transducers. After stabilization, maximal tissue contractions were obtained by the addition of phenylepinephrine for urethra strips and carbachol for bladder strips. When the contraction was stabilized, a dose-response curve of find more udenafil was constructed. For the in vivo study using

adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, changes of intravesical pressure and urethral perfusion pressure after intraarterial administration of udenafil were monitored. Results: Udenafil significantly relaxed the bladder and urethra strips in a dose-dependent manner. At 10(-3) M, udenafil induced a significant relaxation of the bladder strips by 37.3% and of the urethra strips by 44.0%. In the in vivo study, the intercontraction interval was significantly prolonged (p < 0.01) and the duration of urethral relaxation with high-frequency ATM Kinase Inhibitor oscillations was significantly prolonged (p < 0.01) after udenafil. Conclusions: Udenafil had relaxant effects on the bladder and prostatic urethral smooth muscle. Clinically, udenafil could be applied as an effective

treatment for BPH/LUTS. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: The shift in age structure is having a profound impact, suggesting that the aged should be consulted as reporters on the quality of their own lives.

Objectives: The aim of this research was to establish the possible impact of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) techniques on the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly.

Sample: Two non-selected, volunteer groups of Rio de Janeiro municipality inhabitants: a control group (36 individuals), not using TCM, and an experimental group (28 individuals), using TCM at ABACO/Sohaku-in Institute, Brazil.

Methods: A questionnaire on elderly QOL devised by the World Health Organization, the WHOQOL-Old, was adopted and descriptive statistical techniques were used: mean and standard deviation. The Shapiro-Wilk test checked the normality of the distribution.

3%) and 8 (11 1%) patients, respectively (P = 0 013, Fishers’ exa

3%) and 8 (11.1%) patients, respectively (P = 0.013, Fishers’ exact test). Sixty-eight patients had elective selleck chemicals llc surgery (incision and lay open: 34; excision and lay open: 24; excision and closure/Bascom’s/other: 10) and further procedure for recurrence was noted among 3 (8.8%), 5 (20.8%) and 4 (40%) patients, respectively (P = 0.17, chi(2) test).

In patients with coccygeal pilonidal sinus disease, a single-stage incision and lay open of the sinus tract is the most efficient operation, especially during emergency surgery.”
“The advent of optofluidic systems incorporating suspended particles

has resulted in the emergence of novel applications. Such systems operate based on the fact that suspended particles can be manipulated using well-appointed active forces, and their motions, locations and local concentrations can be controlled. These forces can be exerted on both individual and BTSA1 cost clusters of particles. Having the capability to manipulate suspended particles gives users the ability for tuning the physical and, to some extent, the chemical properties of the suspension media, which addresses the needs of various advanced optofluidic systems. Additionally, the incorporation of particles results in the realization of novel optofluidic solutions used

for creating optical components and sensing platforms. In this review, we present different types of active forces that are used for particle manipulations and the CRT0066101 in vivo resulting optofluidic systems incorporating them. These systems include optical components, optofluidic detection and analysis platforms, plasmonics and Raman systems, thermal and energy related systems, and platforms specifically incorporating biological particles. We conclude the review with a discussion of future perspectives, which are expected to further advance this rapidly growing field. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Angiomyolipomas (AML) are rare benign renal tumours which are associated with

aneurysms that can cause haemorrhage. Embolisation of AML greater than 4 cm with a variety of embolic agents is now the first-line treatment in these cases.

This was a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent AML embolisation at Beaumont Hospital from 2000 to 2006 to review the efficacy of embolisation in the treatment of AMLs.

There were six patients in total (n = 6). One patient (16%) had a background of tuberous sclerosis. Half of the patients presented acutely with bleeding and abdominal pain (50%) while the other half were found incidentally. There were no mortalities overall and three patients (50%) developed post embolisation syndrome. Five patients (83%) had a good response to embolisation with no further growth or regression of the AML.

The paucity of data prevented

detailed subgroup analysis

The paucity of data prevented

detailed subgroup analysis.

Conclusions: Despite limited data, serum copper appears to be a useful biomarker of copper status at the population level. Further large studies with low risk of bias are needed to explore the effectiveness of other biomarkers of copper status and the relation between biomarker responsiveness, dose, and period of supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(suppl): 2009S-24S.”
“BackgroundCosmetic procedures are growing ever more common, and the use of soft tissue fillers is increasing. Practicing physicians need to be aware of the biological behavior of these products in tissue to enable them to respond to any safety concerns that their patients raise.

ObjectivesTo provide an overview of the metabolism of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE)-crosslinked selleck chemical hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers and to examine the safety of the resulting byproducts.

MethodsA review of available evidence was conducted.


reaction with HA, the epoxide groups of BDDE are neutralized, and only trace amounts of unreacted BDDE remain in the product (<2parts per million). When crosslinked HA, uncrosslinked HA, and unreacted BDDE degrade, they Selleckchem BMS345541 break down into harmless byproducts or into byproducts that are identical to substances already found in the skin.

ConclusionClinical and biocompatibility data from longer than 15years

support the favorable clinical safety profile of BDDE-crosslinked HA and its degradation products. Given the strength of the empirical evidence, physicians should be confident in offering CP-456773 mw these products to their patients.”
“Polyamine content in cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation and transport. In Escherichia coli, there are two polyamine uptake systems, namely spermidine-preferential (PotABCD) and putrescine-specific (PotFGHI), which belong to the family of ATP binding cassette transporters. Putrescine-ornithine and cadaverine-lysine antiporters, PotE and CadB, each consisting of 12 transmembrane segments, are important for cell growth at acidic pH. Spermidine excretion protein (MdtJI) was also recently identified. When putrescine was used as energy source, PuuP functioned as a putrescine transporter. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are four kinds of polyamine uptake proteins (DUR3, SAM3, GAP1 and AGP2), consisting of either 12 or 16 transmembrane segments. Among them, DUR3 and SAM3 mostly contribute to polyamine uptake. There are also five kinds of polyamine excretion proteins (TPO1-5), consisting of 12 transmembrane segments. Among them, TPO1 and TPO5 are the most active proteins.

Patients who underwent both VLCD and RYGB had a total reduction i

Patients who underwent both VLCD and RYGB had a total reduction in HOMA similar to those who underwent the RYGB alone. In contrast, IVITT showed a worsening in insulin induced glucose disposal following RYGB, which suggests worsening peripheral insulin resistance. This study supports the hypothesis that mechanisms other than caloric restriction

are involved in the acute improvement in HOMA-IR following RYGB.”
“Background: To utilize a rabbit model of plaque disruption to assess the accuracy of different magnetic resonance sequences [T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), Cell Cycle inhibitor magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion weighting (DW)] at 11.7 T for the ex vivo detection of size and composition of thrombus associated with disrupted plaques.

Methods: Atherosclerosis was induced in the aorta of male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 17) by endothelial denudation and Combretastatin A4 cell line high-cholesterol diet. Subsequently, plaque disruption was induced by pharmacological triggering. Segments of infra-renal aorta were excised fixed in formalin and examined by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11.7 T and histology.

Results: MRI at 11.7 T showed that: (i) magnetization transfer contrast (MTC)

and diffusion weighted images (DWI) detected thrombus with higher sensitivity compared to T1W and T2W images [sensitivity: MTC = 88.2%, DWI = 76.5%, T1W = 66.6% and T2W = 43.7%, P < 0.001]. Similarly, the contrast-to-noise (CNR) between the thrombus and the underlying plaque was superior selleck chemical on the MTC and DWI images [CNR: MTC = 8.5 +/- 1.1, DWI = 6.0 +/- 0.8, T1W = 1.8 +/- 0.5, T2W = 3.0 +/- 1.0, P < 0.001]; (ii) MTC and DWI provided a more accurate detection of thrombus area with histology as the gold-standard [underestimation of 6% (MTC) and 17.6% (DWI) compared to an overestimation of thrombus area of 53.7% and 46.4% on T1W and T2W images, respectively]; (iii) the

percent magnetization transfer rate (MTR) correlated with the fibrin (r = 0.73, P = 0.003) and collagen (r = 0.9, P = 0.004) content of the thrombus.

Conclusions: The conspicuity of the thrombus was increased on MTC and DW compared to T1W and T2W images. Changes in the %MTR and apparent diffusion coefficient can be used to identify the organization stage of the thrombus.”
“Although numerous biomaterials are used for maxillary sinus-lift surgery, the ideal material for such procedures has not yet been identified. Both heterologous and alloplastic bone substitutes have a solely osteoconductive effect and lack the osteoinductive properties of the bone morphogenetic proteins typical of autologous bone. Our group assessed a new alloplastic graft material, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA), implanted in a human model of maxillary sinus-lift surgery. For this prospective, random, double-blind trial, we used deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) as the comparison material.

In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung canc

In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 Aurora Kinase inhibitor were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant

differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05) and LTB4 (p < 0.05) in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively). Since cys-LT, EVP4593 NF-��B inhibitor LTB4 and 8-isoprostane

concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy.”
“Background: Patients’ health related quality of life (HRQoL) has rarely been systematically monitored in general practice. Electronic tools and practice selleckchem training might facilitate the routine application of HRQoL questionnaires. Thorough piloting of innovative procedures is strongly recommended before the conduction of large-scale studies. Therefore, we aimed to assess i) the feasibility and acceptance of HRQoL assessment using tablet computers in general practice, ii) the perceived practical utility of HRQoL results and iii) to identify possible barriers hindering wider application of this approach.

Methods: Two HRQoL questionnaires

(St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire SGRQ and EORTC QLQ-C30) were electronically presented on portable tablet computers. Wireless network (WLAN) integration into practice computer systems of 14 German general practices with varying infrastructure allowed automatic data exchange and the generation of a printout or a PDF file. General practitioners (GPs) and practice assistants were trained in a 1-hour course, after which they could invite patients with chronic diseases to fill in the electronic questionnaire during their waiting time. We surveyed patients, practice assistants and GPs regarding their acceptance of this tool in semi-structured telephone interviews. The number of assessments, HRQoL results and interview responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods.

Results: Over the course of 1 year, 523 patients filled in the electronic questionnaires (1-5 times; 664 total assessments). On average, results showed specific HRQoL impairments, e. g. with respect to fatigue, pain and sleep disturbances.

Study group (n = 20) consisted of PMS and control group (n = 21)

Study group (n = 20) consisted of PMS and control group (n = 21) consisted of normal menstruating women. The serum oxidant status was assessed by the lipid

hydroperoxide (LHP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC); the antioxidant status was assessed by the total thiol (T-SH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).

The study and control groups revealed no statistical difference, in terms of day 3 LHP, MDA, PC, T-SH and TAC levels. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of day 21 MDA, PC and T-SH levels. However, day 21 LHP KU-57788 chemical structure levels were increased and TAC levels were decreased in the study group compared with the control group.

Increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant capacity may occur in PMS. It can be speculated that the imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant systems may be a cause or the consequence of the various stress symptoms in PMS.”
“We have succeeded in controlling the pretilt angle of liquid crystal (LC) molecules over the whole range of 0 to 90 degrees by using photo-aligned blend films of two azobenzene-containing polyimides (Azo-PIs) with and without side-chains. The Azo-PIs were synthesized from pyromellitic dianhydride

and a mixture of 4,4′-diaminoazobenzene and 4-(4′-propylbi(cyclohexan)-4-yl)phenyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate (PBCP-DABA). PBCP-DABA is a diamine to introduce a side-chain structure into the polyimide. Defect-free uniform LC alignment was obtained in the pretilt angle (theta(p)) ranges of theta(p) <= 11 degrees and theta(p) >= 78 degrees. Previously, we reported that the pretilt angle can be controlled using pure photo-aligned films of Azo-PIs with different molar fractions of PBCP-DABA. For the pure photo-aligned films, the defect-free pretilt angle ranges were theta(p) < 5 degrees and theta(p) >= 85 degrees. These results suggest that the azimuthal anchoring strength of the blend Azo-PI film is stronger than that of the pure films of Azo-PIs with side-chains, at least for the pretilt angle range from 5 to 11 degrees. We found that the defect-free pretilt angle range

can be extended by using the blend Azo-PI films instead of the pure Azo-PI films. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3624767]“
“A new Selleckchem GSK126 interesting class of conducting polymer and copolymers based on 4-teriary butyl-cyclohexanone in the main chain has been synthesized by solution polycodensation of terephthalaldehyde with 4-teriary butyl-cyclohexanone and/or cycloalkanone derivatives. The model compound I was synthesized from the 4-teriary butyl-cyclohexanone with benzaldehyde, and its structure was confirmed by elemental and spectral analyses. The resulting polymer and copolymers were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses including Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1-NMR), beside solubility and viscometry measurements.

The most common causative agent was Escherichia coli (91% of case

The most common causative agent was Escherichia coli (91% of cases) with high rate resistance to ampicillin (58%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (38%). Of these children, 25% had evidence of VUR (15 boys and 38 girls). VUR was of low grade in 85% of cases. The overall performance of renal US as a diagnostic test to detect significant uropathies excluding low-grade VUR was excellent; the sensitivity attained 97% and the specificity 94%.

Conclusion: Girls represent 63% of cases with first UTI. For 91% of UTIs, Escherichia coli is held

responsible with a high rate of resistance Taselisib to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. US is an excellent screening tool that allows avoidance of unjustified voiding cystourethrography studies.”
“Background: Malaria is a major public health issue in much of the world, and the mosquito vectors which drive transmission are key targets for interventions. Mathematical models for planning malaria eradication benefit from detailed representations of local mosquito populations, their natural dynamics and their response to campaign pressures.


A new model is presented for mosquito population dynamics, effects of weather, and Mekinist impacts of multiple simultaneous interventions. This model is then embedded in a large-scale individual-based simulation and results for local elimination of malaria are discussed. Mosquito population behaviours, such as anthropophily and indoor feeding, are included to study their effect upon the efficacy of vector control-based elimination campaigns.

Results: Results for vector control tools, such Elacridar order as bed nets, indoor spraying, larval control and space spraying, both alone and in combination, are displayed for a single-location simulation with vector species and seasonality characteristic of central Tanzania, varying baseline transmission

intensity and vector bionomics. The sensitivities to habitat type, anthropophily, indoor feeding, and baseline transmission intensity are explored.

Conclusions: The ability to model a spectrum of local vector species with different ecologies and behaviours allows local customization of packages of interventions and exploration of the effect of proposed new tools.”
“Legionella spp. are pathogens that can cause Legionnaires’ disease in humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The principal reservoir for these microorganisms is water, but Legionella spp. have been isolated from composted vegetable and plant material, and from many potting mixes as well. In Australia, there have been several cases of Legionnaires’ disease in which Legionella longbeachae has been isolated from potting soils. In Switzerland, the source of infection cannot always be identified as water or cooling towers: therefore, we have investigated 46 commercially available potting soils in Switzerland to determine the presence of Legionella spp. We were able to detect Legionella spp. in 45.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3361482]“

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3361482]“
“Polypyrrole IPI-145 datasheet (PPy) was doped with the azocalix[4]arene [(5,11,17,23-tetrakis[(p-carboxyphenyl)azo]25, 26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene)]

host species. PPy/azocalix[4]arene salts were characterized by FTIR, TGA, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and conductivity measurements. The properties of PPy were investigated in the presence of azocalix[4]arene host species. The conductivity of PPy increased in the presence of azocalix[4]arene. TGA results indicated that the PPy/azocalix[4]arene salts have higher thermal stability than PPy. It was observed from SEM analysis that the particle diameter of PPy decreased with increasing content of azocalix[4]arene. (C) 2009

Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2697-2702, 2010″
“Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction find more of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling

and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch MCC950 solubility dmso function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bee pollen ethanolic extracts on the in vivo gastrointestinal tract microflora colonization of broiler chickens. A completely randomized experiment based on six treatments (different concentrations of bee pollen – 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 g kg(-1) diet) was used during 7 weeks.

Strategies to simplify the therapeutic regimen

may improv

Strategies to simplify the therapeutic regimen

may improve adherence.

Aim: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of conversion from a twice-daily to once-daily tacrolimus formulation in adult liver transplant patients.

Patients and methods: This prospective observational Pexidartinib multicenter study included 187 liver transplant patients with at least 10 months post-transplant follow-up, no rejection episodes in the last three months, and creatinine levels < 2 mg/dL. Conversion from a twice-daily to a once-daily formulation was based on a 1: 1 proportion.

Results: Median age was 61 yr (range: 28-80 yr); 64% were men and 36% women. The main indications for liver transplant were alcoholic cirrhosis

in 30%. Median conversion time was 55 months (range: 10-215 months). Serum tacrolimus levels decreased at one month after conversion (pre-conversion levels = 5.4 +/- 3.0 ng/mL vs. post-conversion levels = 4.4 +/- 2.4 ng/mL, p = 0.013); learn more however, these values normalized at six months post-conversion with no changes in liver function and rejection episodes were observed only in two patients.

Conclusion: Conversion from a twice-daily to a once-daily tacrolimus formulation is a safe, effective strategy in the management of stable liver transplant patients.”
“Topoisomerase III (topo III), this website a type IA topoisomerase, is widespread in hyperthermophilic archaea. In order to interrogate the in vivo role of archaeal topo III, we constructed and characterized a topo III gene deletion mutant of Sulfolobus islandicus. The mutant was viable but grew more slowly than the wild-type strain, especially in a nutrient-poor medium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed changes of the mutant in growth cycle characteristics including an increase in proportion of cells containing either more than two genome equivalents or less than one genome equivalent in exponentially-growing cultures. As shown by fluorescence microscopy, a fraction of mutant cells in the cultures were drastically enlarged,

and at least some of the enlarged cells were apparently capable of resuming cell division. The mutant also shows a different transcriptional profile from that of the wild-type strain. Our results suggest that the enzyme may serve roles in chromosomal segregation and control of the level of supercoiling in the cell.”
“The specific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA sequences exhibits no clear patterns of association between amino acids (AAs) and nucleotides (NTs). This complexity of protein-DNA interactions raises the question of whether a simple set of wide-coverage recognition rules can ever be identified. Here, we analyzed this issue using the extensive LacI family of transcriptional factors (TFs).