Paracoccidioides malate synthase (PbMLS) appears to be important to the infectious process of Paracoccidioides spp because Quisinostat cell line the transcript is up-regulated during the transition from mycelium to yeast, during the infectious phase , and in yeast cells during phagocytosis by murine macrophages . PbMLS participates in the glyoxylate pathway, which enables the fungus to assimilate two-carbon compounds, and in the allantoin degradation pathway of the purine metabolism, which allows the fungus to use nitrogen compounds . In addition to being a crucial enzyme in the metabolism of Paracoccidioides spp, PbMLS is located in peroxisomes and in the cell wall of the fungus. It is capable of binding to extracellular matrix components
such as fibronectin and collagen
learn more types I and IV and is also secreted by the fungus. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this enzyme plays a role as an adhesin, having the ability to mediate host cell adhesion and internalization of Paracoccidioides spp in a significant role in the establishment of infection . Therefore, there is evidence of PbMLS functionality, which drives the investigation of these functions through studies of protein interactions. The availability of all of the sequences of the Paracoccidioides spp genome and the appearance of various techniques for the screening of selleck screening library protein-protein interactions makes it possible to discover the functions of fungal O-methylated flavonoid proteins of interest from the identification of their ligands . Therefore, this study was performed to identify Paracoccidioides spp proteins that might interact with PbMLS through techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid system (which is the most suitable method for identifying binary interactions) and affinity purifications coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analyses (pull-down), to discover multi-protein assemblies that enable us to infer other functions of this enzyme and
corroborate evidence of their multiple locations in the fungal cell. The interactions were also evaluated by in silico analysis. Results Tracking of protein interactions in vitro by pull-down assays The pull-down technique detects the physical interactions between proteins most directly; as a result, it is a useful tool in the confirmation of protein-protein interactions predicted by other techniques . Here, pull-down assays were performed to search for interactions between PbMLS and other proteins of Paracoccidioides Pb01 from different extracts because the fungus expresses different proteins depending on the phase , which could lead to different PbMLS-interacting proteins. The recombinant proteins GST and PbMLS fused to GST (PbMLS-GST) were expressed, purified by using an affinity resin, and visualized by SDS-PAGE (Additional file 1: Figure S1A, lanes 1 and 2, respectively). The predicted mass for the hybrid protein PbMLS-GST was 86.4 kDa (60.9 kDa for PbMLS and 25.5 kDa for GST).