DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) has protective effects on ischemic br

DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) has protective effects on ischemic brain tissue through multiple mechanisms and has been used for stroke treatment in China for several years. BAY 63-2521 nmr In this study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to induce oxidative stress injury to rat bone marrow

stem cells (rBMSCs), imitating the microenvironment surrounding transplanted cells in the ischemic brain in vitro. The protective effects of NBP on rBMSCs against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress were investigated. Our results indicated that NBP could protect rBMSCs against apoptosis due to antioxidative properties and modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway. NBP could be used in combination with BMSCs for the treatment of cerebral infarction by improving the oxidative stress microenvironments and cell survival, however, further studies remain warranted.

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause. Some familial forms of PD are provoked by mutations in the genes encoding for the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Mounting evidence indicates that PINK1 and Parkin might function in concert to modulate mitochondrial degradation, termed mitophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PINK1/Parkin affect mitophagy are just beginning to be elucidated. Herein, we review the main advances in our understanding of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. Because of the phenotypic similarities among the different forms of PD, a better understanding of selleck PINK1/Parkin biology might have far-reaching pathogenic and therapeutic implications for both the inherited and the sporadic forms of PD.”
“A proteomic approach was applied to compare

the secretome (culture filtrate proteome) of phosphate-sufficient (+Pi) and Pi-deficient (-Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures. Secretomes harvested from the +Pi and -Pi cells yielded dissimilar 2-DE maps. PMF via MALDI-TOF MS resulted in the identification of 50 protein spots representing 37 discrete GANT61 ic50 proteins having unique gene identities. A total of 24 Pi-starvation responsive proteins were identified, with 18 of these being up-regulated and six down-regulated. Secreted proteins up-regulated by the -Pi cells included a ribonuclease involved in Pi scavenging from extracellular nucleic acids, as well as enzymes of cell wall modification, proteolysis, pathogen responses, and ROS metabolism. Enzyme activity assays and immunoblotting demonstrated that a pair of purple acid phosphatase isoforms having subunit M(r)s of 65 and 55 kDa was also secreted by the -Pi cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the relationship between mRNA levels and relative amounts of selected secretome proteins.

5 kPa for the unloaded healthy wall (n = 25 specimens) and

5 kPa for the unloaded healthy wall (n = 25 specimens) and

plaque (n = 18), respectively. When the healthy wall was distended uniformly during AFM testing, two mechanically distinct populations emerged from comparisons of normal cumulative distributions, with median values of 9.8 and 76.7 kPa (n = 16). The higher values of stiffness may have been due to extended elastin, which was not present in the plaques. Rather, most plaques were identified via standard and immunofluorescent histology to be largely lipid laden, and they exhibited a nearly homogeneous linear elastic Selleckchem Sotrastaurin behavior over the small AFM indentations. Understanding the mechanics and mechanobiological factors involved in lesion development and remodeling could lead to better treatments for those lesions that are vulnerable to rupture. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Advances in stroke treatment have mirrored advances selleck kinase inhibitor in vascular imaging. Understanding and advances in reperfusion therapies

were made possible by improvements in computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, neurovascular ultrasound, and renewed interest in catheter angiography. As technology allows better noninvasive vascular diagnosis, digital subtraction angiography (the remaining gold standard for vascular imaging) is increasingly used for rescue procedures and elective interventions. This review will examine specific advantages and disadvantages of different vascular imaging modalities as related to stroke diagnosis.”
“Insulin was reported to decrease Na+/H+ exchange activity in murine vascular smooth muscle GDC-0449 order (VSM) tissue. In most other cells, insulin increases activity. We tested the effects of insulin on Na+/H+ exchange activity in primary cultured canine VSM cells. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured with 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5-carboxyfluorescein fluorescence and Na+ uptake by isotopic methods.

Insulin alone did not significantly affect pH(i) (7.13 +/- 0.05 vs. 7.10 +/- 0.03 for control and insulin, respectively; p = not significant), and EIPA alone lowered it to 6.98 +/- 0.04 (p < 0.05), upon which insulin lowered it further to 6.91 +/- 0.04 (p < 0.05). In the presence of a pH(i) clamp, pH(i)/extracellular pH (pH(o)) 7.1/7.4, insulin increased amiloride-sensitive Na-22 uptake by 98 +/- 25% (p < 0.05). At pH(i)/pH(o) 6.0/7.4 or 6.7/7.4, amiloride-sensitive Na-22 uptake was stimulated by 378 +/- 59 and 105 +/- 27%, respectively, compared to pH(i)/pH(o) 7.1/7.4 (p < 0.05 for all 3 versus each other), but was insulin insensitive. In acid-loaded cells (pH(i) 6.0), addition of extracellular Na+ (pH(o) 7.4) caused rapid intracellular alkalinization, and the initial rate was not affected by insulin. It is concluded that insulin stimulates acid accumulation in VSM cells that is normally effluxed by increased Na+/H+ exchange activity, and insulin may directly stimulate Na+/H+ exchange activity when cells are clamped at resting pH(i) but not at acidic pH(i).

All patients underwent angiographic control 6 months postoperativ

All patients underwent angiographic control 6 months postoperatively. The end points were major adverse cerebrocardiovascular events and proportion of grafts patent or functional at follow-up angiography.

Results: There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of hospital events. At follow-up there was no significant difference in major adverse cerebrocardiovascular events between the 2 groups. At the 6-month angiographic follow-up, 91% of the anastomoses in the right gastroepiploic artery group and 95% of the anastomoses in the saphenous vein graft group were controlled patent (P = .92). In nonoccluded right coronary arteries,

the proportion of patent grafts was significantly lower and the proportion

AZ 628 clinical trial selleck chemical of nonfunctioning grafts was significantly higher in the right gastroepiploic artery group than in the saphenous vein Graft Group.

Conclusion: There were no significant patency or major adverse cerebrocardiovascular events rate differences between the 2 Groups; however, the number of functional grafts was significantly higher in the saphenous vein graft group. Careful selection of the coronary target is mandatory to obtain good results in gastroepiploic artery grafting.”
“Apoptosis is a natural cell elimination process involved in a number of physiological and pathological events. This process can be regulated by members of the Bcl-2 family. Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of this family, accelerates cell death, while the pro-survival member, Bcl-X-L, can antagonize the pro-apoptotic function of Bax to promote cell survival. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of Bcl-X-L on Bax-induced alterations in mitochondrial. respiration and calcium this website release. We found that in primary cultured astrocytes, recombinant Bcl-X-L is able to antagonize Bax-induced decrease in mitochondrial respiration and increase in mitochondrial. calcium release. In addition,

we found that Bcl-X-L can lower the calcium store in the endoplasmic reticulum, thus limiting potential calcium flux induced by apoptosis. This regulation of calcium flux by Bcl-X-L may represent an important mechanism by which this protein promotes cell survival. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: We assessed the efficacy of our newly modified technique, namely, less invasive quick replacement with rapid rewarming, for octogenarians undergoing emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection.

Methods: Forty-two patients with acute aortic dissection, whose average age was 8 1.7 +/- 2.3 years, were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 25 patients undergoing surgery with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective cerebral perfusion; group 11 consisted of 17 recent patients who underwent less invasive quick replacement.

In PSD-95, Dig, ZO-1/DIg-homologous region (PDZ) 3-truncated muta

In PSD-95, Dig, ZO-1/DIg-homologous region (PDZ) 3-truncated mutant mice in which LTD could not be induced but LTP was found to be enhanced, we found a subtle, yet preferential displacement of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate

receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) subunits in lateral regions of the synapse without affecting changes in the localization of N-methyl-D-aspartate WZB117 clinical trial receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) subunits. In persistent inhibitory alpha CaMKII Thr305 substituted with Asp in alpha-isoform of calcium-calmodulin kinase II (T305D) mutant mice with severely impaired LTP but stable LTD expression, we found a selective reduction of NR2A subunits at both the synapse and throughout the cytoplasm of the spine without any effect on the NR2B subunit. In an experiment of mutual exclusivity, neither PSD-95 nor aCaMKII localization was found to be affected by mutations to the corresponding PSD protein suggesting that they are functionally independent of the other in the regulation of NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs preceding synaptic activity. Consequently, there may exist at least two distinct PSD-95 and alpha CaMKII-specific

NMDAR complexes involved in mediating LTP and LTD through opposing signal transcluction pathways in synapses of the hippocampus. The contrasting phenotypes of the PSD-95 and alpha CaMKII mutant mice further establish the prospect of an independent and, possibly, competing mechanism check details for the regulation of NMDAR-dependent bidirectional synaptic plasticity. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque microvessels are associated with plaque hemorrhage and rupture. The mechanisms underlying plaque angiogenesis are largely unknown. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and -2 are ligands of the endothelial receptor Tie-2. Ang-1 induces formation of stable vessels, whereas Ang-2 destabilizes the interaction between endothelial cells and their support cells. We studied the expression

patterns of Ang-1 and -2 in relation to plaque microvessels. Methods and Results: Carotid endarterectomy specimens were studied (n = 100). Microvessel density (MVD) was correlated with the however presence of macrophages and with a (fibro) atheromatous plaque phenotype. A negative correlation was observed between Ang-1 expression and MVD. A positive correlation was observed between the ratio of Ang-2/Ang-1 and MVD. Ang-2 expression was correlated with matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. Immunohistochemical staining of Ang-1 was observed in smooth muscle cells, whereas Ang-2 was detected in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Conclusions: In plaques with high MVD, the local balance between Ang-1 and Ang-2 is in favor of Ang-2. Plaque Ang-2 levels are associated with MMP-2 activity.

However, N250r also shows a degree of image specificity, with red

However, N250r also shows a degree of image specificity, with reduced

activation across repetitions of different images of the same face compared to repetitions across the same image, suggesting a component that codes the visual overlap between two face images. This study investigated whether N250r is equally attenuated when horizontally or vertically stretched faces prime an unstretched image of the same face. The results confirm that N250r is larger across repetitions of the same face image than across different images of the same face. Despite this, N250r was equivalent for priming by the same face image and priming from stretched onto unstretched faces. This finding demonstrates that N250r does not simply reflect SRT1720 nmr the superficial visual overlap between two face images and supports the notion that it is related to person recognition.”
“Hypopituitarism is defined as the deficiency of one or more of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Several developmental factors necessary for pituitary embryogenesis and hormone secretion have been described, and mutations of these genes in humans provide a molecular understanding of hypopituitarism. Genetic studies of affected patients

and their families Foretinib purchase provide insights into possible mechanisms of abnormal pituitary development; however, mutations are rare. This review characterizes several of these developmental proteins and their role in the

pathogenesis of hypopituitarism. Continuing research is required to better understand the complexities and interplay between these pituitary factors and to make improvements in genetic diagnosis that can lead to early detection and provide a future cure.”
“Many species of African nonhuman primates are natural hosts for individual selleck kinase inhibitor strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These infected animals do not, however, develop AIDS. Here we show that multiple species of African nonhuman primate species characteristically have low frequencies of CD4(+) T cells and high frequencies of both T cells that express only the alpha-chain of CD8 and double-negative T cells. These subsets of T cells are capable of eliciting functions generally associated with CD4(+) T cells, yet these cells lack surface expression of the CD4 protein and are, therefore, poor targets for SIV in vivo. These data demonstrate that coevolution with SIV has, in several cases, involved downregulation of receptors for the virus by otherwise-susceptible host target cells. Understanding the genetic factors that lead to downregulation of these receptors may lead to therapeutic interventions that mimic this modulation in progressive infections.”
“Studies of the event-related potentials (ERPs) P3a/P3b have given insights into age effects on cognitive processes in the brain, and it has been established that latency increases and amplitude decreases with age.


“Recent evidence suggests that rapid eye movement (REM) sl


“Recent evidence suggests that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) causes learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism

of REMSD-induced memory impairment remains unclear. Calcineurin (CaN) is involved in synaptic plasticity and is known as a negative constraint on learning and memory. Here we report that 72 h REMSD by the modified multiple platform method in rats resulted in spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze and elevated hippocampal cytosolic CaN activity, both of which were reversed after 18h sleep recovery. CaN expression in the whole-tissue homogenate of the hippocampus Volasertib chemical structure was not altered by REMSD. The results suggest that elevated hippocampal CaN activity is involved in REMSD-induced spatial memory impairment. NeuroReport 20:1172-1176 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“‘Face-space’ is an abstract concept of the multidimensional representation of faces. Faces of similar appearance are closer in face-space than dissimilar faces; however, it is not clear how representations interact

Examining contrast thresholds for facial recognition, we show that a 200 ms preview of a face facilitates PF477736 datasheet recognition of the same face, but inhibits recognition of other faces, more so for the same ethnic group than for a different ethnic group. This suggests a center-surround organization in which facial representations close to the priming stimulus are more suppressed than those that are distant

NeuroReport 20:1177-1182 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“A previous study shows that most inferior collicular neurons of the bat discharge maximally to a best duration and these duration-selective neurons have better echo frequency selectivity when the duration of both echo and pulse matches the best duration. In this study, we show that these duration-selective collicular learn more neurons also have the sharpest echo amplitude selectivity when the duration of both echo and pulse matches the best duration. These data indicate that bats can better extract multiple parameters of expected than unexpected echo within the same time window after pulse emission. These data also support the previous studies showing that bats prepare their auditory system to analyze expected returning echoes within a time window after pulse emission. NeuroReport 20:1183-1187 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“We studied the relation between cortical oscillatory rhythms and the structural integrity of the corpus callosum in 21 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Participants underwent resting state neuromagnetic recordings and diffusion tensor imaging. Areas of three segments of the corpus callosum (genu, body, splenium) were derived through diffusion tensor imaging-based morphometrics.

Serum estradiol fluctuations in women may influence the response

Serum estradiol fluctuations in women may influence the response of urothelial carcinoma to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment.”
“Purpose: Androgen independent prostate cancer growth and metastasis are a major cause of prostate cancer death. Aberrant androgen receptor activation check details due to androgen receptor mutation is an important

mechanism of androgen independence. We determined the effectiveness and mechanism of 17 alpha-estradiol (Sigma(R)) in blocking aberrant androgen receptor activation due to androgen receptor mutation.

Materials and Methods: We used LNCaP and MDA Pca-2b prostatic tumor cells (ATCC(R)) containing a mutated androgen receptor and WT estrogen receptor beta to test 17 alpha-estradiol inhibition of aberrant androgen receptor activation of prostate specific antigen gene expression and cell growth. Cotransfection analysis was used to further elucidate the mechanism of 17 alpha-estradiol action. Xenograft animals with an LNCaP prostate tumor were prepared to study the in vivo effect of 17 alpha-estradiol on tumor growth inhibition.

Results:

In LNCaP cells 17 alpha-estradiol produced a dose dependent inhibition of cyproterone acetate (Sigma) or dihydrotestosterone induced prostate specific antigen gene expression. In MDA Pca-2b cells 17 alpha-estradiol inhibited cortisol FG-4592 (Sigma) induced prostate specific antigen

expression and blocked dihydrotestosterone and cortisol induced cell proliferation in LNCaP and MDA Pca-2b cells, respectively. Cotransfection analysis showed that 17 alpha-estradiol inhibition of aberrant androgen receptor activation of prostate specific antigen gene expression was medicated via estrogen receptors. In xenograft mice with LNCaP prostate cancer 17 alpha-estradiol but not 17 beta-estradiol (Sigma) significantly inhibited tumor growth, although each estrogen tended to decrease tumor growth.

Conclusions: Results suggest that 17 alpha-estradiol with less classic estrogenic activity is a potential therapeutic agent for androgen independent prostate cancer selleck kinase inhibitor due to androgen receptor mutation.”
“Introduction. – In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have been limited to test motor cortical excitability. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory circuits of the motor cortex and to relate these to measures of cognitive function in AD patients. Results were compared with those of a control group of healthy subjects matched for age, sex and education.

Patients and methods. – Forty-five AD patients and 37 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Each participant received a neurological evaluation, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR).

We hypothesized that choices of pediatric urologists are based on

We hypothesized that choices of pediatric urologists are based on technical factors of the studies themselves, as well as institutional factors unique to their hospital(s). Therefore, we surveyed pediatric urologists to determine their current practices

and preferences of modalities of voiding cystography.

Materials and Methods: We mailed an anonymous survey of 40 questions to all fellows of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Urology.

Results: Surveys were returned from 186 of 301 fellows (62%). Of the respondents 57% were in academic, 30% in private and 13% in mixed practices. Given a choice of fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography, radionuclide cystography and voiding ultrasonography, fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography was preferred by 98% and 96% of respondents for initial evaluation of urinary tract infection in

males and females, respectively, 96% for assessment of prenatal hydronephrosis, www.selleckchem.com/products/prt062607-p505-15-hcl.html 54% for followup of vesicoureteral reflux, 59% for screening siblings, and 63% and 66%, respectively, after open and endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Voiding ultrasonography was preferred by less than 10% of respondents in all groups, and radionuclide cystography was preferred by the remainder. Voiding images of the urethra, child-friendliness of staff, sensitivity and accuracy were factors most important in choosing a test. Of the respondents 83% reported full-time access to pediatric radiologists at their primary hospital, although a minority had full-time access to pediatric radiologists at additional MX69 institutions. Sedation was used in some or most cases by 29%, rarely by 56% and never by 15% of respondents.

Conclusions: Pediatric urologists prefer fluoroscopic voiding cystography in all situations to evaluate vesicoureteral reflux Lonafarnib price but the proportion

varies by indication. Diagnostic and patient issues are of greater concern than radiation dose. Variability in access to pediatric radiologists and ability to obtain the desired study may also alter ordering practices.”
“Purpose: The response of 2-amino-4-([C-14]methylthio)butyric acid ([C-14] Met) uptake and [I-125]3-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ([I-125]IMT) uptake to radiotherapy of C10 glioma cells was compared to elucidate the intracellular reactions that affect the response of 2-amino-4-([C-11] methylthio)butyric acid ([C-11]Met) uptake to radiotherapy.

Methods: After irradiation of cultured (3 Gy) or xenografted C10 glioma cells (25 Gy) using a carbon ion beam, the accumulation of [C-14] Met and [I-125]IMT in the tumors was investigated. The radiometabolites in xenografted tumors after radiotherapy were analyzed by size-exclusion HPLC.

Results: [C-14]Met provided earlier responses to the carbon ion beam irradiation than [I-125]IMT in both Cultured and xenografted tumors.

Most pathophysiological features of the early stages of MALT lymp

Most pathophysiological features of the early stages of MALT lymphomagenesis can be reproduced by experimental infection of BALB/c mice with Helicobacter species. We have previously shown that MALT lymphomas are infiltrated by T-helper cell type 2-polarized T cells and that human and murine tumor B cells carry polyreactive surface immunoglobulins. Using the murine AZD6094 mw model of the disease, in this study we show that explanted tumor B cells proliferate upon stimulation with the same panel of self and foreign antigens that are recognized by their surface antibodies. Tumor cell proliferation is strongly enhanced by the presence of intratumoral CD4(+) T cells in

a CD40/CD40L-independent manner. A large proportion of tumor-infiltrating Go6983 CD4(+) T cells are CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) with highly suppressive activity, which are recruited by the tumor cells through secretion of the Treg-attracting chemokines CCL17 and CCL22. The depletion of CD25(+) cells was as efficient as CD4(+) T cell depletion in blocking tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that B-cell receptor-derived signals cooperate with T-helper cell signals in driving the progression of MALT lymphoma, providing an explanation for the unique antigen dependence of this B-cell malignancy. Leukemia (2010) 24, 1186-1196; doi:10.1038/leu.2010.76; published online 29 April 2010″
“The antialcoholism medication disulfiram

(Antabuse) inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which results in the accumulation of acetaldehyde upon ethanol ingestion and produces the aversive ‘Antabuse reaction’ that deters alcohol consumption. Disulfiram has also been shown to deter cocaine use, even in the absence of an interaction with alcohol, indicating the existence of an ALDH-independent therapeutic

mechanism. We hypothesized that disulfiram’s inhibition of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons, underlies the drug’s ability to treat cocaine dependence. We tested the effects of disulfiram on cocaine and food self-administration behavior and drug-primed see more reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. We then compared the effects of disulfiram with those of the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Disulfiram, at a dose (100 mg/kg, i.p.) that reduced brain NE by similar to 40%, did not alter the response for food or cocaine on a fixed ratio 1 schedule, whereas it completely blocked cocaine-primed (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reinstatement of drug seeking following extinction. A lower dose of disulfiram (10 mg/kg) that did not reduce NE had no effect on cocaine-primed reinstatement. Nepicastat recapitulated the behavioral effects of disulfiram (100 mg/kg) at a dose (50 mg/kg, i.p.) that produced a similar reduction in brain NE. Food-primed reinstatement of food seeking was not impaired by DBH inhibition.

FGFs are key candidates to modulate the impact of environmental f

FGFs are key candidates to modulate the impact of environmental factors, such as stress. Mutant mice for FGF receptor 1 show schizophrenia-like behaviors that are related to general loss of neurons and postnatal glia dysfunction. Mice lacking FGF2, a FGFR1 ligand, show similar reductions in brain

volume and hyperactivity, as well as increased anxiety behaviors. FGFR2 and FGF17 are involved in the development click here of frontal brain regions and impairments in cognitive and social behaviors, respectively. Moreover, treatment with FGF2 was beneficial for depressive and cognitive measures in several animal studies and one human study. These findings indicate the importance of the FGF system with respect to developing mTOR inhibitor novel etiology-directed treatments for psychopathology.”
“N4-like bacteriophages are a class of virulent Podoviridae phages for which few genome sequences are present in GenBank. IME11, a novel lytic Escherichia bacteriophage with a wide host range, was isolated, and the whole genome was sequenced. It has a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 72,570 bp. Genomic analysis showed that it resembles another Escherichia phage, vB_EcoP_G7C. Here we announce its complete genome and major findings from its annotation.”
“Human

communication in a natural context implies the dynamic coordination of contextual clues, paralinguistic information and literal as well as figurative language use. In the present study we constructed a paradigm with four types of video clips: literal and metaphorical expressions accompanied by congruent and incongruent gesture actions. Participants were instructed to classify the gesture accompanying the expression as congruent or incongruent by pressing two

different keys while electrophysiological activity was being recorded. We compared behavioral measures and event related potential (ERP) differences triggered by the gesture stroke onset. Accuracy data showed that incongruent metaphorical expressions were more difficult to classify. Reaction times were modulated by incongruent gestures, by metaphorical expressions Bafilomycin A1 order and by a gesture-expression interaction. No behavioral differences were found between the literal and metaphorical expressions when the gesture was congruent. N400-like and LPC-like (late positive complex) components from metaphorical expressions produced greater negativity. The N400-like modulation of metaphorical expressions showed a greater difference between congruent and incongruent categories over the left anterior region, compared with the literal expressions. More importantly, the literal congruent as well as the metaphorical congruent categories did not show any difference. Accuracy, reaction times and ERPs provide convergent support for a greater contextual sensitivity of the metaphorical expressions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.