7 In humans, persistent normotension after receiving a kidney gra

7 In humans, persistent normotension after receiving a kidney graft from a normotensive donor was

observed in dialysis-dependent patients suffering from ‘essential hypertension’.8 These studies suggest that ‘blood pressure Palbociclib purchase goes with the kidney’. It has recently been recognized that maternal problems during pregnancy, for example nutritional deprivation, placental malfunction, hyperglycaemia, smoking and others, affect prenatal programming and predispose in postnatal life to hypertension, renal disease, metabolic syndrome and other sequelae.9 Specifically, Brenner postulated that nephron underdosing as a consequence of prenatal developmental problems is associated with hypertension and higher susceptibility to renal damage.10 Indeed, several studies11,12 documented lower numbers of glomeruli but larger glomerular size in hypertensive as compared to normotensive Caucasoid individuals. Low birthweight is known to be associated with reduced nephron numbers.13 Children with low weight at birth have low blood pressure at birth; at the end of the first postnatal year, however, their blood pressure values are within the highest percentile14 and at higher age an inverse correlation between birthweight and systolic blood pressure has recently been documented.15 It is of importance that in contrast to low nephron numbers at birth, reduction

of nephron numbers in adult life, for example by life-kidney donation, causes minimal – if any – increase in blood pressure.16 Metformin It is of

considerable importance with respect to the following discussion that a history of low birthweight is associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in healthy adult individuals.17 Arthur Guyton was the first to provide a quantitative mathematical explanation for the relation between blood pressure Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 and natriuresis (pressure–natriuresis relationship).18,19 He postulated that if the pressure relationship is normal, salt intake would transiently raise arterial pressure which in turn would increase sodium excretion until the baseline steady-state pressure was reached. When the blood pressure/natriuresis relationship is shifted to the right, higher blood pressure values are required to enable the kidney to excrete sodium loads. It is very difficult in humans to carry out long-term studies examining the relationship between salt intake and blood pressure as well as cardiovascular end-points, respectively. The difficulty of large observational human studies is illustrated by the controversial results of the Intersalt study.20,21 Against this background, it is of interest that recently in chimpanzees changes in salt intake corresponding to intakes in humans resulted in significant long-term effects on blood pressure.

VIP/VPAC1 expression did not vary in BALB/c glands with mouse age

VIP/VPAC1 expression did not vary in BALB/c glands with mouse age and, in contrast with NOD glands, freshly isolated acinar cells seemed not to be prone to apoptosis. Acinar cells from NOD mice could be further induced to learn more apoptosis with a concentration

of TNF-α (10 ng/ml) that was almost ineffective in normal acinar cells. VIP inhibited TNF-α-induced apoptosis in NOD acinar cells through a VPAC1/cAMP/PKA pathway, while neither VPAC2 receptors nor the neuropeptide could be detected in acini, indicating that their expression in whole glands would not correspond to acinar cells. Finally, we found a reduced phagocytic index of NOD macrophages to engulf apoptotic acinar cells compared to normal macrophages, but their basal inflammatory phenotype was suppressed during phagocytosis and VIP stabilized this suppressor regulatory phenotype. It is noteworthy that the time–course of VIP/VPAC1 relative expression decline is similar to the kinetics of nNOS activity loss shown previously and parallels RNA Synthesis inhibitor the reduction in the secretory response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation [12]. It also coincided with the loss of acinar cell homogeneous structure of the glands and a higher ductal to acinar cell ratio in the glands at 16 weeks of age [12]. The localization of this enzyme is normally confined

to neural fibres in close proximity to gland epithelial cells where NO contributes to salivary flow. Consistent with this, NOD mice submandibular glands showed a

reduced NOS activation through VIP receptors that coincided with the reduction in salivary flow [15]. While VIP can induce NOS in peripheral and central neurones, VIP expression is regulated by neural NOS activity and knock-out mice for neural NOS isoform express lower neuronal VIP levels [29]. In rat salivary glands VIP is localized in nerve fibres rather than in acinar cells, being mainly released from nerves surrounding acini where it displays trophic effects on epithelial cells [17,18]. In fact, the release of trophic and anti-apoptotic stimuli from nerve terminals with long-term effects on salivary gland parenchyma is the rationale of a newly designed device to restore salivary flow in patients with SS and other sicca-associated pathologies [30]. Acinar cells from both normal and NOD DOK2 submandibular glands express only VPAC1 receptors, as reported previously [16]. In these cells, VIP was able to reduce apoptosis via cAMP/PKA pathway, as derived from the fact that H89 reversed VIP effect on bax expression [16] and Bad phosphorylation, a step previous to the loss of its apoptotic effect through binding to 14–3–3 in cytosol [31]. Evidence shown here indicates that acinar epithelium of NOD but not BALB/c glands present increased apoptosis along with a dysregulated NF-κB basal activation consistent with a predominant apoptosis-to-survival intracellular set-point.

34,35 In an effort to determine the significance of the species-s

34,35 In an effort to determine the significance of the species-specific

difference in STAT2, a knock-in mouse was generated in which the C-terminus of murine STAT2 was replaced with the human sequence, resulting in a chimeric mouse/human STAT2 molecule.36 Interferon-α/β treatment of STAT2 knock-in CD4+ T cells led to normal ISGF3 formation and ISG expression. However, IFN-α/β did not promote STAT4 phosphorylation or IFN-γ expression in CD4+ T cells expressing the chimeric STAT2 molecule. Hence, although the C-terminus of human STAT2 was required in human cells to promote efficient STAT4 phosphorylation in response to IFN-α/β, it was not sufficient to restore this pathway in mouse cells. Indeed, recent studies have highlighted the importance of STAT N-terminal domains in coordinating additional contacts with cytokine receptors selleck chemicals llc that form the pre-assembled complexes necessary for cytokine-driven STAT activation.6,37,38 Specifically, the STAT4 N-terminus was found to be critical for IFN-α/β-dependent STAT4 activation through specific contacts made with the human,

but not mouse, IFNAR2 subunit.39 These studies have revealed additional levels of complexity of cytokine receptors and their underlying molecular interactions that coordinate STAT activation. Although the biochemical nature of STAT4 tyrosine phosphorylation differed quantitatively between mouse and human, there still remained Palbociclib order the issue regarding the function of IFN-α/β-dependent STAT4 activation during Th1 commitment. Given the pronounced role of IL-12 signalling through STAT4 to drive Th1 commitment, 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase these early studies assumed that any signalling pathway that activated STAT4 would promote Th1 development. Recent studies have challenged this assumption. Virtually all receptors that signal via the JAK/STAT pathway promote STAT tyrosine phosphorylation within minutes following receptor engagement. However, the duration of signalling varies between receptors and among STAT family members. Hilkens and colleagues40

first demonstrated a clear difference in the duration of STAT4 tyrosine phosphorylation between IL-12 and IFN-α/β signalling in human CD4+ T cells, with IL-12 promoting sustained STAT4 activation compared with IFN-α/β signalling. The inability of IFN-α/β to maintain STAT4 activation was correlated with a marked deficit in IFN-α/β-dependent Th1 development. Further kinetic comparisons of IL-12 and IFN-α/β clearly demonstrated that while IL-12 promoted STAT4 phosphorylation up to 24 hr, STAT4 was rapidly dephosphorylated within 6 hr of IFN-α/β stimulation.26 As a result, only cells treated with IL-12 expressed sustained levels of T-bet sufficient for IFN-γ secretion and Th1 commitment.

She was treated with IVIG 0 1 mg/kg (total

10 doses) She

She was treated with IVIG 0.1 mg/kg (total

10 doses).She made gradual recovery over few weeks and she cleared the adenovirus by PCR after 5 weeks of therapy with well-functioning graft with creatinine of 126 μmol/L. The patient is a 60-year-old woman with ESRF secondary to polycystic kidney disease. She had been on PD for 4 months prior to undergo deceased-donor renal transplantation with a single HLA mismatch Selleck R788 in 2013. The donor was CMV and EBV positive. Standard induction therapy was administered with basiliximab, prednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg). Immediate postoperative care was unremarkable and a creatinine nadir of 49 μmol/L was seen within the first week. Protocol biopsy on day 12 revealed borderline cellular rejection with variable lymphocytic infiltrate see more and mild-moderate tubulitis with no change in serum creatinine. Immunofluorescence failed to show staining for c4d. She was treated with three doses of 500 mg IV methylprednisolone and repeat biopsy at day 29 showed no further evidence of rejection with a creatinine of approximately 50 μmol/L. Immunosuppressant dosage remained unchanged. Around 4 weeks post-transplant she began complaining of dysuria and frequency and fever of 40°C. She was treated empirically with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid but failed to grow a bacterial pathogen. After one week of oral antibiotics

her symptoms did not improve and thus immunosuppression was reduced and a single dose of gentamicin (4 mg/kg) was administered, and a 7 day course of ciprofloxacin was commenced to cover protocol removal of the ureteric stent. After 3 further days of antibiotics and second negative urine culture, the patient developed diarrhoea and was admitted for inpatient management. Stool, plasma and urine specimens were positive for adenovirus confirming suspicion of systemic adenovirus. Given the well-matched donor, and concern for progressive and high risk adenovirus infection, immunosuppression was reduced further. Adenylyl cyclase With severe, almost half-hourly urinary frequency and dysuria, in spite of being systemically well with a normal white cell count, cidofovir was commenced at 1 mg/kg thrice-weekly intravenous infusions. The dysuria

and diarrhoea slowly improved after one week of therapy. Serum and plasma adenovirus was undetectable by PCR after the fourth infusion although the virus continued to shed through the urine and stool albeit reduced by 2–3 logs in semi-quantitative analysis. Subsequently her clinical condition deteriorated with the development of high grade temperatures and severe malaise and worsening renal transplant function. This had not been a feature of her initial presentation and raised concern about cidofovir toxicity necessitating immediate cessation. Over the subsequent 3 days, she developed a renal tubular acidosis and her creatinine rose sharply to 170 μmol/L. Abdomino-pelvic CT showed evidence only of mild perinephric stranding and no obstruction.

OPS imaging is a relatively inexpensive technique and has the adv

OPS imaging is a relatively inexpensive technique and has the advantage of being portable [73]. It provides optimal image

resolution on organs covered by a thin epithelial layer and does not require the injection of fluorescein to obtain an excellent level of contrast [73]. OPS and SDF have been used during surgery to assess see more the microcirculation of several organs, including the brain [108,109], the kidney [122], or the liver [110]. The most studied site, however, is the sublingual region, where the density of perfused capillaries can be non-invasively assessed [33]. Semi-quantitative analysis of the microcirculation has been proposed with OPS, based on a scoring including both the measurement of perfused capillary density and the flow heterogeneity between the different areas [32]. The main applications of OPS and SDF concern critical care medicine. De Backer et al. showed that microcirculation assessed with OPS on the sublingual mucosa was impaired in severe sepsis [31]. In the same way, BGJ398 nmr SDF allowed identifying significant

abnormalities in microvascular density during early post-resuscitation phase, which returned to baseline within 48 hours after cardiac arrest [36]. Although the image quality is not as good as on mucosa, OPS has also been used on lower limb skin to evaluate microcirculation in chronic venous insufficiency [141]. Other applications of skin OPS imaging include the assessment of microcirculation in burn wounds [55,99]. Nonetheless, OPS use in burn wound severity is still predominantly used for research [73]. Application of pressure with OPS or SDF probes during examination modifies the flow velocity in vessels under investigation [87] and therefore induces artifacts. Moreover,

motion-induced image blurring is another limitation of OPS, attenuated in SDF imaging. Finally, they cannot be used in individuals with phototypes IV, V, and VI according to Fitzpatrick classification because melanin absorbs light at a similar wavelength to hemoglobin [137]. In conclusion, OPS and SDF imaging Uroporphyrinogen III synthase are semi-quantitative techniques implemented in small devices that can be used at the bedside. They provide good quality images of microvessels on thin epithelial layers. The most studied site is the sublingual region, and has been used mainly in critically ill patients. The main limitations of OPS and SDF imaging are the artifacts induced by movement and pressure. Finally, quantitative assessment of skin blood flow is not fully automatized yet, although this could be achieved by the development of new software [33]. Laser Doppler is based on the backscattering of a beam of laser light. The light undergoes changes in wavelength (Doppler shift) when it hits moving blood cells. The magnitude and frequency distribution of these changes in wavelength are related to the number and velocity of red blood cells [126].

We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these

We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these fatty acid metabolism-related molecules in

human gliomas. We performed immunostaining of two glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) and 41 surgical specimens of diffuse gliomas with various histological grades (21 with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation and 20 without the mutation). In the cultured glioma cells, CPT1C and phosphorylated ACC (p-ACC) were mainly localized to the nuclei, whereas FASN localized to the cytoplasm. In the surgical specimens, most glioma tissues showed nuclear staining for CPT1C and p-ACC, and cytoplasmic staining for FASN, regardless of the genetic status of IDH1 and the histological grade. Therefore, elevated cytoplasmic check details expression of FASN and nuclear localization of CPT1C are common among human diffuse gliomas, which may be regulated by

the differential phosphorylation status of ACC in the cellular compartment. “
“Brain metastasis is an FAK inhibitor uncommon but increasing manifestation of ovarian epithelial carcinoma and neuropathologists’ collective experience with these tumors is limited. We present clinicopathological characteristics of 13 cases of brain metastases from ovarian epithelial carcinoma diagnosed at two academic institutions. The mean ages at diagnosis of the ovarian carcinoma and their subsequent brain metastases were 58.7 and 62.8 years, respectively. At the time of initial diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma the majority of patients had an advanced stage and none had brain metastases as their first manifestation of malignancy. Brain metastases tended to be multiple with ring-enhancing features on neuroimaging. Primary tumors and their brain metastases were all high-grade histologically and the histologic subtypes

were: nine high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) cases, two clear cell carcinoma (CCC) cases and a single case each of carcinosarcoma and high-grade adenocarcinoma. A recommended histo- and immunopathological approach to these tumours are provided to aid neuropathologists in the recognition and classification Dichloromethane dehalogenase of metastatic ovarian carcinoma to the brain. “
“Axon regeneration is a fundamental problem facing neuroscientists and clinicians. Failure of axon regeneration is caused by both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. New techniques to examine gene expression such as Next Generation Sequencing of the Transcriptome (RNA-Seq) drastically increase our knowledge of both gene expression complexity (RNA isoforms) and gene expression regulation. By utilizing RNA-Seq, gene expression can now be defined at the level of isoforms, an essential step for understanding the mechanisms governing cell identity, growth and ultimately cellular responses to injury and disease.

In this review we focus upon recent advances in our understanding

In this review we focus upon recent advances in our understanding of the tissues and organs involved in host defence in C. elegans, as well as the virulence mechanisms employed by some pathogens to defeat those defences. A major advantage of C. elegans as a model system is its relatively simple anatomy. The C. elegans body plan is tubular, with the mouth at the

anterior end of the head and the anus at the posterior near the tail. The head contains the pharynx, a muscular organ that contracts rhythmically to pump food into the grinder, a chitinous rigid organ that crushes ingested material before it is pumped through the pharyngeal–intestinal valve into the lumen of the intestine [5]. The intestine proper, which takes up approximately one-third of the midbody transversal Trichostatin A section, is a simple organ formed by just 20 non-renewable polarized Rucaparib mouse epithelial cells, organized in nine rings of directly apposed pairs of cells (except for the first ring, which is formed by four cells). These intestinal epithelial cells exhibit many ultrastructural similarities with mammalian intestinal epithelial cells, most conspicuously an apical brush border of microvilli protruding into the intestinal lumen. The microvilli are formed of actin bundles anchored in an intermediate filament terminal web. The intestine is metabolically

highly active, with similar functions to the fat body in flies and the liver in mammals [5]. Other major organs include the gonads, which fill up most of the transversal section find more of the animal and generate oocytes that are fertilized

as they pass through the spermathecae near the ventral uterus. Fertilized eggs remain inside the animal until early embryogenesis, at which point they are laid through the ventral vulval opening. The hypodermis (epidermis) and body wall muscle sheathe the intestine, the gonads and the body cavity (pseudocoelom). The body wall muscle contracts to generate the characteristic sinusoidal movements that allow locomotion and behaviour, co-ordinated by an intricate nervous system that links environmental sensory perception with movement, endocrine signalling and behaviour. The hypodermis, among other functions, deposits the highly impermeable cuticle, the collagenous exoskeleton of the worm. C. elegans lacks a circulatory system, professional immune cells and macrophage-like phagocytes. Being an invertebrate, it lacks antibody-generating adaptive immunity and relies on epithelial-based innate immunity for defence. Nevertheless, C. elegans mounts a sophisticated immune response, as measured by transcriptional regulation of host defence genes upon infection. In contrast to what is known about flies and mammals, the C. elegans immune response is mostly independent of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling [6,7].

The recipient vessels were digital artery and dorsal digital vein

The recipient vessels were digital artery and dorsal digital vein. The flap was not reinnervated during transfer procedures. The donor sites were closed primarily in all cases. Flap size ranged from 15 × 25 mm to 60 × 20 mm. All flaps www.selleckchem.com/products/PLX-4032.html were survival. Partial loss occurred in one flap, due to venous congestion caused by excessive stitch tension. The donor sites healed unevenfully

in eight cases, but mild wound dehiscence occurred in two cases. The follow-ups ranged from 6 to 29 months with the mean of 18.1 months. The mean of s-2PD and m-2PD were 8.8 mm and 6.8 mm at patients’ last visits, respectively. MPAP flaps are good in terms of general morbidity, cosmetic results, and durability. This flap is a valuable alternative method

of repairing the glabrous finger pulp and tip defects. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. “
“Preoperative CT-angiography (CTA) has shown to reduce operative time in deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction compared to Doppler ultrasonography (US). Although decreased flap loss has been suggested, statistical significant reduction remains indeterminate. The purpose of this review is to evaluate flap loss after preoperative CTA and Doppler US in DIEP-flap breast reconstruction. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane libraries. All articles comparing CTA to Doppler US were selected and critically appraised; PXD101 data on flap loss were extracted. From 678 studies, eight were selected for appraisal. Six case–control studies were included in the final analysis. Pooled

analysis showed CTA resulted in a significant reduction Tideglusib in partial necrosis (odds ratio/OR 0.15; 95% confidence interval/CI 0.07–0.32, P < 0.0001) and decreased flap loss (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10–0.79, P = 0.02). Studies included in this meta-analysis have several limitations. However, most studies find a large clinical advantage of CTA over Doppler US, which reaches statistical significance when combined. As results show that CTA prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction offers significant clinical benefits, we suggest the routine use of preoperative CTA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 33:496–502, 2013. "
“Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique for head and neck reconstruction with success rates of 90–99%. Currently, there is no consensus concerning antithrombotic agents, antibiotics, or monitoring techniques. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review current literature dealing with microvascular free-tissue transfer and factors influencing the outcome. In addition to excellent microsurgical techniques, coupling devices are a promising new technique, but are not useful in all arteries. Antibiotics should be given in three doses, as a more lengthy dosage time seems to have no advantage.

Many immune activities are attributed to NKT cells, although they

Many immune activities are attributed to NKT cells, although they are associated most often with providing effective immunity against cancer, infections and autoimmune diseases [2-4]. Given these varied roles [5, 6], it is surprising (and an issue of conjecture [7, 8]) that usually only the CD4+ and CD4− subsets of mature human NKT cells are assayed when clinically assessing the human NKT cell pool [9]. CD4+ NKT cells produce cytokines associated with T helper PF-562271 molecular weight type 0 (Th0) responses,

and CD4− NKT cells are associated with Th1 responses [10, 11]. The extent to which additional functionally distinct human NKT cell subsets exist is not known, but others have been defined in mice, and human NKT cells express differentially several cell surface antigens used to define conventional T cell subsets [8, 10-13]. A recent study showed selleck products that both the CD4+

and CD4− NKT cell subsets were highly heterogeneous in their expression of cell surface antigens and cytokine production, which suggested that unidentified functionally distinct subsets may exist within both these subsets [14]. This was an important finding, however, similar to earlier reports that examined the significance of CD8 expression by human NKT cells [15, 16], the study used expanded NKT cell lines to obtain sufficient cell numbers and it is uncertain whether or not the phenotype of the expanded cells accurately reflected the in situ (i.e. non-expanded) human NKT cell pool. Like many other NKT cell studies, the analysis was conducted using only NKT cells sourced from peripheral blood. This is an important issue to consider because, although analysis of blood is the dominant source of cells for assessing patient immunity, NKT cell tissue location is an important determinant of their function in mice [17]. Mouse studies have also shown that the profile of blood NKT cells often does not reflect NKT cells from other tissue

sites [18]. It is not known whether this also applies to human NKT cells, although NKT cells from human thymus are functionally unresponsive compared to blood-derived NKT cells Acesulfame Potassium [19] and liver NKT cells are distinct from blood NKT cells in their expression of cell surface proteins [20]. In this study, we characterize the heterogeneity of the human NKT cell pool by analysing cell surface antigen and cytokine expression of the overall NKT cell pool and of the CD4+ and CD4− subsets from different tissues, with an emphasis on testing freshly isolated, rather than in-vitro-expanded, NKT cells. We detail significant heterogeneity within the established CD4+ and CD4− NKT cell subsets from peripheral blood, thymus, spleen and cord blood and identify several candidate antigens where differential expression correlates with distinct patterns of cytokine production by blood-derived NKT cells. Our findings provide a platform for an improved understanding of the complex organization of the normal human NKT cell pool.

As aforementioned, CCL3 and CCL4 are two structurally and functio

As aforementioned, CCL3 and CCL4 are two structurally and functionally related CC chemokines. CCL3 and CCL4 were both discovered in 1988, when Wolpe et al. purified a protein doublet from the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages [57]. Because of its inflammatory properties in vitro as well as in vivo, the protein mixture was called macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). Further biochemical separation and characterization of the protein doublet yielded

two distinct, but highly related proteins, MIP-1α and MIP-1β[58]. From 1988 to ACP-196 molecular weight 1991, several groups reported independently the isolation of the human homologues of MIP-1α and MIP-1β[59–61]. As https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Rapamycin.html a consequence, alternate designations were used for MIP-1α (LD78α, AT464·1, GOS19-1) and MIP-1β (ACT-2, AT744·1), similar to other members of chemokine superfamily. In an attempt to clarify the confusing nomenclature associated with chemokines and their receptors, a new nomenclature was introduced by Zlotnik and Yoshie in 2000 [37]. MIP-1α and MIP-1β were renamed as CCL3 and CCL4. The non-allelic

copies of CCL3 and CCL4 were designated as CCL3L (previously LD78β, AT 464·2, GOS19-2) and CCL4L (previously LAG-1, AT744·2). CCL3 and CCL4 precursors and mature proteins share 58% and 68% identical amino acids, respectively (Fig. 2). Both chemokines are expressed upon stimulation by monocytes/macrophages, T and B lymphocytes and dendritic cells (although they are inducible in most mature haematopoietic cells). Functionally, CCL3 and CCL4 are potent chemoattractants of monocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells and natural killer cells [47]. Despite these similarities, CCL3 and CCL4 differ in the recruitment of specific T cell subsets: CCL3 preferentially selleckchem attracts CD8 T cells

while CCL4 preferentially attracts CD4 T cells [62]. Interestingly, Bystry and co-workers demonstrated that B cells and professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) recruit CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells via CCL4 [63]. This role of CCL4 in immune regulation was reinforced later by Joosten et al. [64], who identified a human CD8+ regulatory T cell subset that mediates suppression through CCL4 but not CCL3. CCL3 and CCL4 also differ in their effect on stem cell proliferation: CCL3 suppresses proliferation of haematopoietic progenitor cells [65]. CCL4 has no suppressive or enhancing activity on stem cells or early myeloid progenitor cells by itself, but has the capacity to block the suppressive actions of CCL3 [66]. A different receptor usage may help to explain, at least in part, why these molecules have overlapping, but not identical, bioactivity profiles: CCL3 signals through the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5.