1999] and clozapine is widely used despite its broad range of adverse effects. An important adverse effect is seizures, which have been observed at all stages of treatment [Sajatovic and Meltzer, 1996]:
at low doses during the titration phase and at high doses during the Enzastaurin buy maintenance phase of clozapine [Pacia and Devinsky, 1994]. As many as 8% of patients taking clozapine have seizures [Wilson, 1992] and resulting fatalities have been reported [Taylor et al. 2009b; Atkinson et al. 2007]. Valproate has, in the past, been considered as the drug of choice for the prophylaxis of clozapine seizures [Devinsky and Pacia, 1994]; however, since the introduction of other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it might not be the best choice and it is not prescribed to every patient receiving clozapine [Atkinson et al. 2007]. There is disagreement as to when best to prescribe valproate during clozapine treatment. Suggestions have included prescribing valproate prophylactically before the occurrence of a seizure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [Taner et al. 1998], remedially after the occurrence of one seizure [Haller and Binder, 1990] or remedially
after two seizures [Wong and Delva, 2007; Liukkonen et al. 1992]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Some guidelines suggest using prophylactic valproate in individuals on clozapine who are prescribed clozapine at doses of 600 mg a day or more or whose clozapine plasma levels are above 500 μg/l [Taylor et al. 2009a]. In the absence of any definitive and widely accepted guidance on the prevention and treatment of clozapine-induced seizures we undertook a systematic review of the relevant
literature. Method Searches of the databases PubMed and Embase were undertaken in June 2009 using the keywords ‘clozapine’, ‘seizure’, ‘anticonvulsant’, ‘antiepileptic’, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ‘EEG’ and ‘valproate’ restricted to the English language and humans. All retrieved papers were examined for additional relevant references. Authors were contacted where necessary for additional information. We aimed to investigate and evaluate the following relationships: clozapine dose and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities, plasma levels and EEG abnormalities, dose and occurrence of seizures and plasma levels and occurrence of seizures. Data obtained were tabulated and weighted linear regression selleck Romidepsin models were fitted to investigate the relationship between clozapine (mean dose and plasma level) and percentage of patients GSK-3 with abnormal EEG and also percentage of patients with seizures. The model was fitted using the Metareg command in Stata version 11. Results Electroencephalogram abnormalities EEG abnormalities can be epileptiform, defined as focal or generalized spikes (including spike—wave and polyspike discharges) or sharp waves, or nonepileptiform, defined as focal and/ or generalized slowing which may be mild, moderate or severe [Treves and Neufeld, 1996]. We identified 12 papers [Chung et al. 2002; Schuld et al.