Factors such as type of cargo, crew sizes, and mixed crews or not

Factors such as type of cargo, crew sizes, and mixed crews or not do most probably add to the complexity of the safety culture concept. The work process proposed in this paper was found to be usable and valuable in analyzing and interpreting safety culture results. When applied to a shipping company and on board ships, the visualized results in the dendrograms can constitute important input to the ongoing improvement processes for safety. These results enable group discussions about safety culture aspects and can initiate individual

thought processes as well as organizational improvement processes for safety. Group discussions can take place on different organizational levels. The group composition can be varied with advantage to include different crew members’ perspectives and understanding selleck chemicals llc of safety culture issues. The work process proposed in this paper where safety culture results are visualized in dendrograms facilitates a qualitative understanding of the phenomena safety culture. The output results identify related safety culture aspects and these relationships can guide Torin 1 the design of improvement measures for safety culture and safety in an organization. This work was supported by grants from

the Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation, the Swedish Maritime Administration, and the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems. “
“Peruvians love seafood, and this is nothing new. In 1908 at the 4th International Fishery Congress in Washington DC, Dr Robert E. Coker, Fishery

Expert to the Government of Peru, described the Peruvian fisheries, and stated “no people could be more highly or more generally MTMR9 appreciative of fish food” [1]. Dr Coker’s description is one of highly diverse fisheries and, as he expressed it, “[d]oubtless the fishes and the fishery resources of no country represented at this congress are less known to the world than are those of Peru. As can be expected, anchoveta (Engraulis ringens, Peruvian anchovy), the central species in the world’s most productive ecosystem formed part of Coker’s description. “[S]triking … are the immense schools of small fishes, the “anchobetas“ (Engraulis ringens Jenyns), which are followed by numbers of bonitos and other fishes and by sea lions, while at the same time they are preyed upon by the flocks of cormorants, pelicans, gannets, and other abundant sea birds. It is these birds, however, that offer the most impressive sight. The long files of pelicans, the low-moving black clouds of cormorants, or the rainstorms of plunging gannets probably can not be equaled in any other part of the world. These birds feed chiefly, almost exclusively, upon the anchobetas. The anchobeta, then, is not only an article of diet to a large number of Peruvians, and the food of the larger fishes, but, as the food of the birds, it is the source from which is derived each year probably a score of thousands of tons of high-grade bird guano.

Institui-se antibioterapia com levofloxacina

Institui-se antibioterapia com levofloxacina Saracatinib ic50 com apirexia ao fim de 4 dias e tem alta para a consulta de Medicina Interna, onde realiza tomografia computorizada (TC) toraco-abdomino-pélvica (fig. 1) que demonstra,

ao nível da 2a porção do arco duodenal (DII), a partir da vertente externa da parede, imagem que parece corresponder a invaginação parcial, cujo conteúdo é semelhante ao do arco duodenal adjacente, não se identificando lesões sólidas à periferia deste segmento de intestino delgado que possam constituir ponto de partida para a invaginação. O duodeno encontra-se distendido (5,5 cm) a jusante deste nível e até à zona dos vasos mesentéricos (3.a porção), não se identificando qualquer causa obstrutiva subjacente. Face o resultado da TC, realiza trânsito gastro-duodenal onde se observa piloro permeável para o bolbo doudenal, que apresenta espessamento do relevo mucoso, aspeto este que se mantém em buy PLX4032 continuidade na primeira e segunda porções do duodeno, compatível com fenómenos inflamatórios. Observa-se, ainda, imagem aditiva com sinal «windsock» na 2a porção duodenal com 3,2 cm de diâmetro compatível com DDI ( fig. 2) e dilatação de DII e DIII com cerca de 5,5 cm de calibre, com manutenção do relevo mucoso e conservação da distensibilidade, cuja causa localiza-se na linha média

e é sugestiva de pinça aórtico-mesentérica. Efetua, também, endoscopia digestiva alta (EDA) que identifica algumas pequenas erosões agudas no antro gástrico, bulbite erosiva marcada e edema das pregas em DII condicionando estenose relativa com alguns restos alimentares impactados. Efetuadas biópsias apenas no bolbo e DII, revelando, old no estudo

morfológico, infiltrado inflamatório moderado da lâmina própria, constituído predominantemente por eosinófilos (cerca de 35 por CGA) sugestivo de duodenite eosinofílica ( fig. 3). Perante a suspeita clínica de GEE, realiza estudo parasitológico das fezes e testes epicutâneos para alergia alimentar e standard, ambos negativos. Por queixas de enfartamento, inicia tratamento com metilprednisolona 40 mg/PO/dia durante 3 semanas, seguido de redução progressiva e lenta até aos 10 mg/dia. A EDA de controlo, executada 3 semanas após o início do tratamento, identifica esófago com aspeto traqueiforme (fig. 4) e DII com estenose circunferencial em anel, erosionada, mas facilmente franqueável e restos alimentares sólidos a montante. Foram efetuadas biópsias no esófago, estômago e duodeno. O exame histopatológico revelou marcada redução do infiltrado por células eosinofílicas na lâmina própria da mucosa duodenal (menos de 5 eosinófilos por CGA), traduzindo resposta terapêutica (fig. 5). Restantes biopsias sem alterações.

The used strains are thermophilic bacteria, frequently utilized i

The used strains are thermophilic bacteria, frequently utilized in our processes at technical scale. In studies taking place Trichostatin A cell line under non-sterile conditions, B. coagulans was shown to be the most predominant species [1]. Furthermore, the B. coagulans strains are known for their inhibitor tolerance [17] and their capability of utilizing pentose sugars from the hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulose [24]. These facts provide for the possibility to ferment difficult media under semi-sterile condition. Prior the fermentation

in technical and pilot scale, kinetic data is needed to gain a basic understanding of the characteristics of the MOs for later fermentation processes and their design. Growth models are used to obtain the basic growth parameters, such as specific growth rate and duration of lag phase, in order to classify and differentiate microorganisms in respect to their behaviour towards diverse lignin concentrations. Numerous models were developed for the representation of growth curves. Widely known models ABT-199 are the logistic [28], Gompertz [14], [25], [26] and [28], Champbell-Richards and Stannard [28], and the model offered by József Baranyi [3]. These models have been established to

fit the equations to the sigmoidal shape of a typical growth curve. Bacillus coagulans strains were isolated from different environmental areas. They were stored in cryogenic vials (VWR, 822074ZA) at −70 °C and reactivated on MRS broth (Merck, 1.10661.0500) at 52 °C for 24 h). After reactivation the microorganisms were cultivated on slant culture tubes with MRS agar (Merck, 1.10660.0500) and stored at 4 °C for further use in inocula. The used strains were officially microbiologically characterised through the Leibniz Institute’s

German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ). Strain-1 (DSM No. 2314) was isolated from potato washing water, strain-2 (DSM ID 14-301) was isolated from chicken feed, and strain-3 (DSM ID: 14-298) was isolated from rotten foliage. Inocula were cultivated on 60 ml MRS (Merck, 1.10661.0500) broth in shaking flasks (52 °C, Anidulafungin (LY303366) 100 rpm, 15 h). These were transferred into 5 ml tubes for centrifugation (5000 rpm, 15 min, 4 °C). Centrifuged bacteria were resuspended in minimal medium for the lignin test (60 g/l d-(+)-glucose, 5 g/l yeast extract, 0.025 mol/l sodium-acetate-buffer at pH 6.0). A set of five different lignin concentrations (Sigma, 471003), (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6,and 0.8 g/l) was applied. A Bioscreen C from Oy Growth Curves Ab Ltd., was used for the optical density experiments. Measurements were taken with a wide band filter (420–580 nm). For the calibration curve, Bioscreen C microarray honeycomb plates were prepared as follows: all wells, except the wells of the 10th row, were filled with 250 μl of the minimal medium. The wells of the 10th row were filled with 500 μl inocula. 250 μl were removed from these wells and transferred into the next upper row.

Our aim was to guarantee a higher number of patients assessed; ho

Our aim was to guarantee a higher number of patients assessed; however, prospective studies are more adequate for the purpose of evaluating psychopathology induced by IFN-α. In this study, a major risk factor for this adverse effect, which is baseline subclinical affective symptoms, could not be evaluated ( Hauser et al., 2002 and Dieperink et al., 2003). Afatinib mw Our results corroborate the results of

many other studies suggesting that the development of this substance-induced depression is not related to gender, age, route of infection, type of IFN used, result of the antiviral treatment, past history of substance use disorders, depression or any psychiatric disorder not related to cytokine administration, and family history of mood disorder (Horikawa et al., 2003, Schaefer et al., 2002, Capuron and Ravaud, 1999 and Otsubo et al., 1997). These data are in contrast to a recent study which found that female gender independently predicted the emergence of major depression during IFN-α treatment in hepatitis C (Leutscher et al., 2010). On the other hand, the higher severity of liver fibrosis showed a significant

association with the diagnosis of IFN-α-related depression in our sample. Otsubo et al. (1997) also evaluated the effect of this variable in a prospective Navitoclax research buy design study examining a sample of 85 Japanese patients and could not find evidence of such association. In addition to population-specific characteristics, and a smaller sample size, differently from our approach, the previous study used DSM-III-R criteria and Hamilton Depression Scale

scores to reach major depression diagnosis. Combined, these factors may explain the discordant results. Additionally, it’s reasonable to assume that severe liver dysfunctions may result in more neurovegetative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and monoamine disturbance in CNS, predisposing the fulfillment Meloxicam of major depression diagnosis (Quarantini et al., 2009). Additionally, as other studies with Brazilian samples demonstrated (Parana et al., 1999 and Quarantini et al., 2006), the main routes of infection of HCV in our study were blood transfusion and sharing syringes to use vitamin complexes. Therefore, it may not be possible to extend our findings to groups of patients with hepatitis C including a significant percentage of illicit intravenous drug users, the main source of HCV infection worldwide (Lavanchy, 2009). In summary, since the role of IDO in the pathophysiology of this cytokine-triggered depression has proven relevant (Comai et al., 2011), the inability to identify any association between the selected polymorphisms and our diagnosis of major depression related to IFN-α plus RBV therapy does not completely exclude the possibility of the role of genetic variants in the modulation of IFN-α response.

SAS induced pulmonary injury in animals via an inflammatory proce

SAS induced pulmonary injury in animals via an inflammatory process following high exposure concentrations. Due to fast and complete elimination of SAS from pulmonary tissues and the body,

no SAS accumulation occurs. The observed changes in animal experiments are reversible up to very high exposures, which can practically not be obtained under normal conditions of handling and use of these materials by workers and consumers. As non-threshold effects (mutagenicity) are not involved in the cascade of key events, there is no human health risk associated with SAS if current occupational hygiene standards are met. The biological activity and toxicity of silica is related to its physical and chemical properties (such as crystallinity, shape, composition mTOR inhibitor and surface reactivity). The specific physical and chemical properties need to be considered in the ecotoxicological or toxicological testing.

In particular, SAS materials usually do not exist as single particles (primary particles, nodules) but in the form of micro-metre-sized, firmly bound aggregated and loosely connected agglomerates. However, authors of studies on SAS or “nanosilica” often selleck screening library only report the primary particle size and insufficiently characterise their test material, which makes interpretation and comparison with other test materials and studies difficult. Stabilised colloidal silica with isolated particles in the nano-size range is commercially available, however it usually also quickly polymerizes to bigger aggregates under physiological testing conditions. Aggregation and agglomeration of SAS particles grossly reduces their bioavailability. In contrast to crystalline silica, SAS slowly dissolves in aqueous environments and body fluids. None of the SAS types Cytidine deaminase was shown to bioaccumulate and all disappear within a few weeks from living organisms by physiological excretion mechanisms. The tendency to supersaturate increases the elimination from body tissues. Any silica

absorbed (either as particle or in dissolved form) is excreted by the kidneys without evidence of accumulation in the body. This is very different from crystalline silica forms which exhibit a marked tendency to accumulate and persist in the lung and lymph nodes. SAS adsorbs to cellular surfaces and can affect membrane structures and integrity. The biological activity and in vitro cytotoxicity can be related to the particle surface characteristics interfacing with the biological milieu rather than to particle size. The physical properties and the results from mechanistic studies with other particles suggest that smaller particles, due to their greater surface area per unit of mass, may be more effective in inducing toxic effects.

I thank Heather Koldeway and Matthew Gollock from Zoological Soci

I thank Heather Koldeway and Matthew Gollock from Zoological Society of London, John Turner from Bangor University, Nick Dulvy from Simon Frazer University, and Chas Anderson, for very helpful comments on the manuscript. “
“The main threat to biodiversity loss in the marine environment is exploitation which results in species population Ipilimumab supplier declines and extinctions, habitat degradation, and ecosystem changes (Essington et al., 2006, Heithaus et al., 2008, Hutchings and Baum, 2005, Jackson et al., 2001, Myers and Worm, 2003 and Thurstan et al., 2010). International policy commitments now aim

to reduce this loss, supported by the development of threat indicators that can monitor environmental concerns related to fisheries (Dulvy et al., 2006). Overexploitation of apex predators has dramatically influenced biological communities by triggering cascading effects down food webs, leading to decreases in diversity and/or productivity, loss Raf inhibitor of ecosystem services and, in some instances, ecosystem collapse (Agardy, 2000, Jackson et al., 2001, Worm et al., 2002, Ferretti et al., 2010, Pinnegar et al., 2000 and Myers et al.,

2007). The majority of these studies relate to coastal ecosystems and currently there is insufficient evidence available to make an empirical assessment as to whether similar events are occurring within the pelagic realm (Worm et al., 2003). However, widespread shifts in the species targeted by some pelagic fisheries towards lower trophic-level species Decitabine suggest that changes in ecosystem structure have occurred (Verity et al., 2002). An ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management is now thought necessary to understand the overall impacts of fishing (Botsford et al., 1997 and Chuenpagdee et al., 2003). The Chagos Archipelago – also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, BIOT, and subsequently referred to as Chagos/BIOT – is one of the UK’s fourteen overseas territories. The archipelago comprises of about 55 islands

located in the centre of the Indian Ocean, has the greatest marine biodiversity in the UK and its territories (Sheppard, 2000a), and is of considerable importance to global biodiversity (Procter and Fleming, 1999). UK government committees have previously highlighted their concerns about the lack of attention to, and co-ordination of, environmental initiatives in the UK overseas territories, with 39 recorded terrestrial extinctions and the continued threat of extinction of around 240 other species (House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, 2008 and House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, 2008). The remoteness of Chagos/BIOT combined with very low levels of anthropogenic disturbance – the only human presence is a US military base on Diego Garcia – has resulted in some of the cleanest seas and healthiest reef systems in the world (Everaarts et al., 1999).

With the animals under general anesthesia, endoscopy was performe

With the animals under general anesthesia, endoscopy was performed. Animals were allowed a liquid diet 48 hours before the procedure and water only ad libitum 24 hours before the procedure. Antibiotics were administered for 5 days after the procedure (ceftiofur 5 mg/kg IM daily and metronidazole 1 g bid PO). Analgesia

(buprenorphine hydrochloride 0.03 mg/kg IM) was given immediately after the procedure. Animals were placed on a liquid diet for 1 day after the procedure, fed softened food on the second day, and by the third day, the animals resumed regular feed if tolerated. Each animal received oral proton pump inhibitors (Nexium [esomeprazole magnesium] 40 mg bid PO) for 7 days after the procedure. After PLX4032 order a 2-week

survival period, repeat endoscopy was performed. Animals were chemically euthanized (pentobarbital 100 mg/kg IV) immediately after endoscopy, and this was followed by necropsy. The intent was to create a submucosal tunnel within which a full-thickness biopsy specimen that included the muscularis propria would be obtained. The resection site was offset from the mucosal entry point to the submucosal tunnel http://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD2281(Olaparib).html by approximately 4 to 5 cm. The overlying mucosal flap created by tunneling through the submucosa was used as a sealant flap protecting the peritoneum from contamination by the gastric contents. A large submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) was initially formed by using saline solution (∼40 mL) injected via a standard needle injection catheter (23-gauge Injector Force; Olympus America, Center Valley, Pa). A small incision (<5 mm) was made on the proximal aspect of the SFC by using a needle-knife, which served as the mucosal entry point. A tunneling balloon 18 mm in diameter (Apollo Endosurgery Inc, Austin, Tex) was inserted in the SFC, and as the balloon was inflated (Fig. 1), the unique Mirabegron progressive unfurling of this dilation balloon created a submucosal tunnel revealing muscularis propria. The length of the submucosal tunnel varied and

depended on the length of the balloon used (5-8 cm) and degree of balloon inflation. After the submucosal tunnel was created, a double-channel endoscope (2T 160; Olympus America) with an EMR-type cap attached was advanced through the submucosal tunnel. The EMR clear cap maintained tunnel patency and allowed improved visualization. An endoscopic Doppler probe (VTI Vascular Technology, Nashua, NH) was advanced through the endoscope working channel and placed within this submucosal space to identify any underlying blood vessels. Then a spiral tissue helix (Apollo Endosurgery Inc) or rat-tooth grasping forceps (Olympus America) was used to tent the muscularis propria toward the endoscope and into the cap. By using electrocautery, the muscularis propria was resected by using a spiral snare (Olympus America) or hexagonal snare (Traxtion US Endoscopy, Mentor, Ohio). Tissue was retrieved and submitted for analysis.

4 It should be noted that anti-mitochondrial antibody-negative PB

4 It should be noted that anti-mitochondrial antibody-negative PBC and false-positive anti-transglutaminase antibodies have been reported in this context.19 and 20 As in the case of AIH, the impact of gluten avoidance is not well established, but it is determinant to improve symptomatic CD and to prevent complications.2 and 20 A relation between CD and PSC has been suggested in several case reports and in a population-based study. However the

strength of this association Ipilimumab mouse is not clearly determined and the benefit of gluten exclusion from the diet was not yet demonstrated.2 and 13 Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) are common disorders in the general population and in celiac patients. Alectinib clinical trial Studies found a prevalence of CD in about 3% of individuals with

NAFL and NASH.21 Obesity, a major risk factor for nonalcoholic liver disease, is common in patients with CD not only after but also before gluten withdrawal, which could explain the association between these disorders.22 Additional etiopathogenic mechanisms may be the increased intestinal permeability, resulting in bacterial translocation and production of proinflammatory factors, and malabsorption leading to chronic deficiency of lipotropic molecules.23 and 24 The correlations among CD, obesity and liver disease must be taken into account when establishing the diagnosis and treating celiac patients presenting with elevated liver enzymes. Acute liver failure and advanced liver disease deserve a special consideration. There are several cases reported in literature and CD was found to be (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate up to 10 times more frequent among patients with chronic liver disease than in the general population.25 The study by Kaukinen and colleagues12 found a high prevalence of CD (4.3%) in patients who underwent liver transplantation. Autoimmune disorders, such as PBC, PSC and AIH were the main etiologies of end-stage liver disease leading to transplantation. This study also describes 4 cases of patients with advanced liver disease

who were found to have CD, all of them improving significantly their liver function with gluten withdrawal. Some of the patients in both groups had no apparent symptoms or signs suggesting CD. The authors emphasize that the early detection and treatment of CD may prevent the progression to end-stage liver failure. Therefore, CD must be screened in patients with autoimmune liver disease or hepatitis/cirrhosis of unknown etiology and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Moreover, an essential component of the clinical surveillance after transplantation in CD patients is the assessment of compliance with a gluten-free diet. The present case illustrates the association between CD and liver disease. Our patient was a young woman presenting with asymptomatic hypertransaminasemia. The initial CD screening was based on autoantibodies, followed by duodenal biopsy.

Firstly, a white matter skeleton template is created based on the

Firstly, a white matter skeleton template is created based on the average FA volumes of the sample. Next, for each subject, the TBSS algorithm searches each voxel on the individual skeleton for the one with the highest FA nearby the skeleton template. This maximum voxel is then projected onto the common skeleton template, thus creating one skeleton for each subject, which is assumed to contain the centers of the white matter tracts that are common to all subjects. Voxel-wise statistics are then performed on these GSK126 purchase individual skeletons.

TBSS was carried out using standard procedures freely available from FSL [31]. The alignment of the skeleton template with each subject’s FA volume was visually checked, and the

template was thresholded at FA>0.2. (The TBSS skeleton template is shown in Supplementary Figure 1.) FA values within the skeletons were then compared between C-carriers and individuals homozygous for the A-allele in the control and high-risk groups separately using voxel-wise nonparametric t tests calculated by “randomise” in FSL. Statistics were corrected for multiple comparisons according to family-wise error (P<.05) using threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) [32]. Additionally, to look for any clusters on trend level, the raw T-statistic images were thresholded at T> 3.41, equivalent to P<.001 (df=82). For the control group, an additional analysis was performed with age included as a covariate. Because two previous studies [20] and [22] check details showed that ZNF804A was related to task-independent functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, an SVC was applied to include only voxels within the skeleton and the body and genu of corpus callosum ( Supplementary Figure 2). In the presence of a priori hypotheses, the use of an SVC increases statistical power Liothyronine Sodium by restricting the analysis to a specific region, thereby decreasing the penalty of multiple

comparison correction over many voxels. The SVC was created using the John Hopkins University white matter labels atlas in MNI space [33], thresholded to include only the genu and body of corpus callosum, smoothed (FWHM 1.1 mm), binarized and multiplied with the skeleton mask to include only voxels that were in both the skeleton and the corpus callosum SVC. Voxel-wise analysis was rerun with this SVC applied as a mask. In addition, using the SVC as an ROI, the average FA was extracted from this region and compared between genotype groups using independent-sample t tests. (Of note, by merging the body and genu of corpus callosum, we are compromising the power to detect any very focal signals, which are more likely to be detected in the voxel-wise analysis with SVC, while gaining power to detect more diffuse signals within the corpus callosum.

The overall Time  × Treatment

The overall Time  × Treatment Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor interaction was not significant (P = 0.06, Table 1). However, OC sites and MPA sites were similar to each other ‘Before’ towed demersal fishing was excluded and were significantly different to each other ‘After’ (P = 0.002, Table 1). Four of the six indicator sessile RAS (Ross coral P. fascialis, sea squirt P. mammillata,

Dead man’s fingers A. digitatum and branching sponges) significantly increased in Abundance from the ‘Before’ MPA to the ‘After’ MPA relative to Open Controls (P < 0.05; Fig. 6, Table 2). While pink sea fans (E. verrucosa) and hydroids showed an increasing trend over time, there was no significant Time  × Treatment interaction ( Fig. 5, Table 2). If protected from towed demersal fishing activity, sedimentary habitats between rocky reefs contribute to the reef ecosystem by supporting diverse epibenthic Assemblages. While some of the species observed here were characteristic of sediment habitats (mobile: sole Solea solea, common starfish Asterias rubens, common hermit crab P. bernhardus; sessile: parchment Worm, Chaetopterus variopedatus), some mobile or sessile species

observed on the pebbly sand are typically found on hard substratum (Reef Associated Species). Mobile RAS included brown crab (Cancer pagurus), that lives in rocky crevices, ballan wrasse (L. bergylta), cuckoo wrasse (L. mixtus) and goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) that are territorial around rocky habitats. Of particular relevance for this study, however, were the 24 observed sessile Selleckchem APO866 RAS, such as ross coral (P. fascialis), sea squirt (P. mammillata) and dead man’s fingers (A. digitatum). These ecosystem engineers give structural complexity to the sea bed, providing habitats that act as nurseries, protection from predation and safe settlement opportunities for larvae ( Bradshaw et al., 2003, Eggleston et al., 1990, Lima and Dill, 1990, Mittelbach, 1984 and Pirtle et al., 2012). P. fascialis, which plays a key role in the formation of biogenic reef nursery areas ( Cocito and Ferdeghini, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) 2001 and McKinney and Jackson, 1989), increased

by an average of 385% in the MPA over the three years following protection from towed demersal fishing. Branching sponges, which provide structural complexity for larval settlement and shelter from predators ( Auster, 1998, Auster et al., 1997, Auster et al., 1996 and Bradshaw et al., 2003), increased in Abundance by an average of 414% in the MPA. Hydroids also provide structure for larval settlement ( Bradshaw et al., 2001), and had a mean increase of 229% inside the MPA over time, though this was not statistically different to the controls due to high variability. Phallusia mammillata and A. digitatum, which also add structural complexity to benthic habitats, both significantly increased in Abundance over three years in the MPA (467% and 2541% respectively). Similarly, E.