Disease outbreaks may be important factors affecting populations

Disease outbreaks may be important factors affecting populations of other carnivore species; however, we note that not all authors indicate a breakdown for

disease that would allow comparison – for example, disease and starvation/emaciation are often not distinguished. As a consequence of increased food and water availability in urban habitats, coupled with protection from predators, growth rate, body condition, survival and population densities of carnivores are predicted to be favoured. The presence of abundant, high-energy, non-seasonal food sources in urban areas may have a significant effect on the growth of carnivore species. Yom-Tov (2003) examined VX-809 mw museum specimens collected from Israel over 60 years (from 1945 to 2005), a

time span when human population in the country increased approximately eightfold, resulting in a significant increase in anthropogenic food sources (Yom-Tov, 2003). He recorded that, over this time, species that do not use anthropogenic food (the caracal Caracal caracal and jungle cat Felis chaus) did not significantly change in mass or size; however, wolves, golden jackals Canis aureus and striped hyaenas, which all feed from garbage dumps and make use of livestock carcasses, increased in body mass. The larger species appeared to be more capable Selleck Acalabrutinib of exploiting the extra food provided by humans (Yom-Tov, 2003). A similar pattern of size increase in skull measurements was also recorded for badger and red fox populations in Denmark from 1862 to 2000, which again could be related to altered human agriculture and therefore food sources (Yom-Tov, Yom-Tov & Baagøe, 2003). Starvation due to substantial weight loss over winter is a significant cause MTMR9 of death in skunks,

but urban skunks fare better over winter than their rural counterparts (Rosatte et al., 2010). Similarly, urban raccoons exhibit better physical condition than rural ones, possibly due to anthropogenic food (Rosatte, Power & Macinnes, 1991). Black bears in urbanized Nevada average 30% heavier than bears in rural areas due to a diet heavily supplemented by garbage (Beckmann & Lackey, 2008). Urban kit foxes demonstrate greater body mass compared with non-urban individuals (especially for juveniles) and also demonstrate different haematological characteristics (Cypher, 2010). Urban Eurasian badgers can be heavier than nearby rural badgers, presumably due to the availability of anthropogenic food (Roper 2010 and references therein). More research in this area is needed. Increased survivorship has been recorded for a number of urban carnivore species ( Table 1). Opossums are recognized as bin-raiders par excellence (Clark, 1994), and their reliance on anthropogenic sources of food is such that, in areas where one would expect their range to have been limited by the winter cold and lack of natural food, they are, in fact, well-established (Kanda, 2005).

To specify this distribution, we fit a variety of probability mod

To specify this distribution, we fit a variety of probability models to the survey data. The model with the smallest sum of squared errors was the Weibull. Fit to the entire data

set, the Weibull had a shape parameter of 0.95 (SE = 0.02) and a scale parameter of 6.85 (SE = 0.27). Given the number of cows in a group, we then drew selleck kinase inhibitor the number of calves from a beta-binomial distribution. We conducted two rounds of simulations. First, because time of day was identified as an important source of variation in the data, we simulated calf:cow ratios using the mean relationship for Solar Time and Solar Time squared. The probability each cow had a calf at solar noon was fixed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 and covered the range of values observed during surveys. We examined three values of overdispersion, θ  =  4, 10, or 20, as RG7204 order these covered the range observed in most study years (Table 4). Because future surveys may occur under different circumstances, such as at a different time of year, we repeated the simulations assuming that there was no relationship between the calf:cow ratio and time of day. When time of day must be accounted for, attaining 20% relative

precision generally required sampling >300 groups with cows for ratios ≥0.15 and θ  =  10 or 20 (i.e., higher calf:cow ratios and lower overdispersion). With higher overdispersion, θ  =  4, or lower calf:cow ratios, r = 0.05 or 0.1, >400 groups must be sampled to attain 20% relative precision (Fig. 5A). Sampling 200 groups was sufficient to attain 30% relative precision at all calf:cow ratios and all levels of overdispersion, except r = 0.05. If the effect of time of day need not be estimated, 20% relative precision can be attained by sampling 200 groups with cows for all calf:cow ratios except 0.05 (Fig. 5B). Age ratios, such as calf:cow ratios, are typically used to estimate recruitment and to infer population status. The utility of age ratios for inferring population status has been widely criticized, because increasing

and decreasing populations may have similar age distributions and, therefore, have similar age ratios D-malate dehydrogenase (Caughley 1974, McCullough 1994). Because of this, numerous authors (e.g., Caughley 1974, McCullough 1994, Harris et al. 2008) suggest that independent estimates of population growth or abundance are necessary to verify that inferences based on age ratios are correct. However, it is premature to conclude that age ratio data are not useful. The utility of age ratios to reflect changes in population growth or to estimate survival is primarily dependent upon the stability of the ratio’s denominator (McCullough 1994, Harris et al. 2008). The denominator is stable when the number of adults does not change over time and this requires that recruitment into the adult age classes be balanced by adult mortality.

Eight patients received a single infusion of infliximab, and four

Eight patients received a single infusion of infliximab, and four received two or more infusions. Median follow-up duration was 16.0 months (range, 1.6–41.4 months). The clinical response was evaluated based on a modified Truelove-Witts severity index. Results:  Six patients (50.0%) achieved clinical remission within 30 days. Overall cumulative colectomy-free survival was estimated to see more be 58.3% at 41.4 months. Adverse events included an elevation of liver enzymes (1/12; 8.3%) and a mild infusion reaction (1/12; 8.3%). No mortality occurred. Conclusions: 

Infliximab can induce remission in patients with ulcerative colitis who do not tolerate or respond to tacrolimus therapy. “
“Recent data indicate that multiple hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (mixed infection, superinfection, and reinfection) are common among injection drug users (IDUs). In this study, we identified and characterized multiple HCV infection episodes among HCV-seronegative IDU prison inmates (n = 488) enrolled in the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study cohort. Incident HCV infection with detectable HCV RNA was identified in 87 subjects, 48 of whom completed additional follow-up to screen for reinfection or superinfection. All HCV RNA–detectable samples were tested for multiple infection through a series of specifically

designed nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) with sequencing and HCV RNA level measurement. Sequencing revealed that 22 of 87 (25.3%) subjects were infected by two click here or more viruses. Nine (10.3%) subjects were designated as prevalent cases of incident mixed infection, because

two distinct HCV strains medroxyprogesterone were detected at the first viremic time point. Fifteen further cases of multiple HCV infection (superinfection or reinfection) were identified, two of which also showed baseline incident mixed infections. The incidence of new HCV infection (superinfection and reinfection) during follow-up was 40/100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 33-44/100 person-years). Spontaneous clearance of viruses from one subtype and persistence of the other subtype after mixed infection was observed in eight subjects. In these subjects, the virus with higher HCV RNA levels superseded the other. Conclusion: This study comprehensively analyzed frequent multiple HCV infections in a high-risk cohort and provides further insight into infection dynamics and immunity after exposure to variant viral strains. The data presented suggest that HCV RNA levels play an important role in viral competition. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;52:1564-1572) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 2%-3% of the world’s population, or approximately 170 million people.1 Injection drug use is the most common route of transmission, with the prevalence in long-term injection drug users (IDUs) ranging from 64% to 94%.

In summary, 114 patients (25%) underwent local therapy (percutane

In summary, 114 patients (25%) underwent local therapy (percutaneous ethanol injection: n = 101 or radiofrequency ablation n = 13), 144 (31%) received TA(C)E (transarterial embolization: n = 32, or chemoembolization: n = 112), 133 (29%) received medical therapy (sorafenib: n = 32, somatostatin analogs: n = 53, doxorubicin: n = 7, other medical therapy: n = 41) and two patients (0.4%) received radiation therapy. Between selleck January 2001 and January 2008 252 patients were entered into the TACE database of the Medical University of Innsbruck,

of which 149 patients were eligible for the validation cohort of this study (Fig. 1). All patients were diagnosed by radiologic imaging only. Patient characteristics of the validation cohort are given in Table 1. In total, 141 patients received conventional TACE with lipiodol and doxorubicin within 10 days of HCC diagnosis. Seven patients

exceeded the maximum tolerated doxorubicin dose and were thereafter treated with TAE only. One patient received TACE with drug-eluting beads. The patients received a median number of three TACE cycles (range 1-20). Second-line therapies after TACE included best supportive care (n = 118), CHIR 99021 local-ablative intervention (radiofrequency ablation: n = 13, percutaneous ethanol injection: n = 1, radiation therapy: n = 1), and medical treatment (sorafenib: n = 7 and other therapies: n = 9). In the training cohort 367 of 466 (79%) patients died during the observational period between April 1, 1999 and December 1, 2011, while 47 (10%) subjects were still alive and 52 (11%) patients were lost to follow-up. The distributions and mean CRP levels of patients in the training and the validation cohort are given in Table 1 and Fig. 2A. Mean CRP levels slightly increased with increasing BCLC-stages (BCLC stage A/B/C/D: 0.9/ 1.8/2.7/3.6 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). We first evaluated the impact of CRP levels on patient outcomes by a regression Rebamipide spline analysis. We found a sigmoid-shaped association of CRP levels and the hazard ratio of death, and no increase

of the hazard ratio of death was observed with CRP levels beyond 2 mg/dL (Fig. 2B). Thus, we next formed four different CRP cutoffs between 0 and 2 mg/dL (A: 0-0.5; B: >0.5 and <1, C: ≥1 and ≤2, D: >2 mg/dL). No statistical or clinically meaningful survival difference was observed between the cutoffs A and B or C and D (Fig. 2C). Hence, we used the CRP cutoff <1 versus ≥1 mg/dL (hereafter designated as “normal” and “elevated” CRP) and tested this cutoff in the validation cohort (Fig. 2D). Analysis of the validation cohort confirmed the prognostic power of elevated CRP levels regarding OS in patients with HCC (OS elevated CRP versus normal CRP: 6.2 versus 20.6 months [95% confidence interval, CI: 3.8-8.7 versus 14-27.2], P < 0.0001). We tested the reproducibility of our findings by using another CRP determination at a second independent timepoint (Fig. 2E).

pylori interactions within a cellular biology context will undoub

pylori interactions within a cellular biology context will undoubtedly be rewarding. Infection with H. pylori is known to lead to the release of many chemo- and cytokines; however, more comprehensive characterization of their individual roles is still required. Wong et al. [22] recent characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in mice infected

with H. pylori revealed that a negligible inflammatory response in H. pylori-infected MIF-deficient mice correlated with a substantially reduced inflammatory T-cell response, characterized by lower IFN-γ and TNF-α production. Inflammation in response to H. pylori infection may not only be induced by recruitment of leukocytes, LDK378 but, alternatively, the induction of IL-1β by H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) may increase survival of inflammatory monocytes, and in turn neutrophils extending the local life time of these cells, as shown by Cappon

et al. [23]. Several studies have shed more light to the many facets of IL-1β in this infection, such as the loosening of tight junctions by disrupting claudin-4 [24], and the involvement of sonic hedge hog signaling in IL-1-dependent reduction in gastric acid output [25]. Thus, step-by-step, we are gaining an increased understanding of why the genetic background of IL-1/IL-1R impacts the course of H. pylori-triggered disease [26]. In recent years, the study of a novel selleckchem class of regulators, small RNAs, has gained momentum [27]. Small or micro RNAs (miR) are noncoding RNAs mostly transcribed by RNA polymerase II. They are processed by ribonucleases in the nucleus and further in the cytoplasm by the machinery that also generates small interfering RNAs and by other enzymes. The mature miRs (classified using a nomenclature of the kind Plasmin miR followed by a number, e.g. miR-155) preferentially bind to complementary sequences in the 3′ UTRs of target mRNAs leading

to degradation or inhibition of translation. Depending on the target gene, this can affect multiple host cell processes, including cell development, differentiation, and even malignant transformation, possibly also gastric cancer [28]. Over 700 miR species are predicted from the human genome, and for a number of them a role in regulating expression of genes in cells of the immune system has been demonstrated (for recent review see [27]). Specific microarrays have been produced to detect miR sequences in samples of small RNAs to allow parallel assessment of miR expression. Matsushima et al. [29] used this technology to investigate signatures of 470 miRs in biopsies from Japanese H. pylori infected patients in comparison with non-infected controls. From a total of 242 miRs detected, 55 miRs showed differential abundance in these samples. Validation with another patient cohort revealed that the levels of 30 miRs were consistently decreased in infected patients.

The effect on pruritus was assessed with daily visual analogue sc

The effect on pruritus was assessed with daily visual analogue scales, quality-of-life scores, Erlotinib and evaluations of cutaneous scratch lesions. The predefined primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least a 40% reduction in pruritus visual analogue scale scores. Thirty-eight patients were included, and 35 were evaluable: 17 took colesevelam, 18 took the placebo, 22 were female, 8 were treatment-naive, 14 had primary biliary cirrhosis, and 14 had primary sclerosing

cholangitis. The mean serum bile acid levels were comparable between the groups before treatment (P = 0.74), but they were significantly different after treatment (P = 0.01) in favor of patients treated with colesevelam. Thirty-six percent

of patients in the colesevelam group reached the primary endpoint versus 35% in the placebo group (P = 1.0). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to pruritus scores, quality-of-life scores, and severity of cutaneous scratch lesions. Mild side effects occurred in one colesevelam-treated patient and four placebo-treated patients. Conclusion: Although colesevelam significantly decreased serum bile acid levels, this trial was unable to demonstrate that it was more effective than a placebo in alleviating the severity Protein tyrosine phosphatase of pruritus of cholestasis. find more (HEPATOLOGY 2010) Pruritis is a frequent and debilitating symptom of cholestatic liver disease.1 Although the pathophysiology of pruritus secondary to cholestasis remains largely unknown, it is widely assumed that bile acids are etiologically involved.2, 3 The principal pharmacological treatment options currently available and recommended in recent guidelines4 are cholestyramine5, 6 (a nonabsorbable, bile acid–binding resin), rifampicin,7, 8 naltrexone,9, 10 and sertraline.11 However, the efficacy of these drugs is variable, and side

effects are common. Cholestyramine frequently causes constipation and nausea, rifampicin is known for its potential hepatotoxicity, and patients on naltrexone may experience symptoms of endogenous opioid-withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, the treatment of cholestatic pruritus is currently often problematic and unsatisfactory, and alternative treatment options are warranted. Colesevelam (Cholestagel) is a bile acid sequestrant taken in tablet form that hydrates to a gel and is being used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. This agent differs from other sequestrants in that the hydrophilic polymer backbone has abundant hydrophobic side chains facilitating the binding of bile acids.

Plasma from healthy controls had significantly lower levels of mi

Plasma from healthy controls had significantly lower levels of miR-451 and miR-486 compared with the plasma of GC patients (collected before the operation). Interestingly, however, when the levels of these miRNAs were analyzed selleck compound from tumor tissue or surrounding normal tissue, the tumor tissue exhibited lower expression of miR-451, and no significant difference in expression was observed for miR-486 [9]. In contrast, Song et al. [10] found a reduction

in miR-451 and miR-486 levels in a GC serum pool compared with a control serum pool in their initial TaqMan low-density array, where the expression of 377 miRNAs was analyzed. Based on quantitative RT-PCR validation, they suggested three miRNAs as potential biomarkers for GC detection, miR-221, miR-744, and miR376c. Furthermore, miR-221 plasma levels were already higher in patients with dysplastic lesions, and in a retrospective approach, the levels of all three markers increased during GC development [10]. These studies demonstrate that circulating miRNAs could be a valuable diagnostic tool for cancer detection. They also show that miRNA expression patterns in plasma might not be identical

to those in tumor samples, and more insights are needed to understand the exact mechanisms of miRNA release from cancerous and normal tissues. The role of miRNAs as prognostic factors in GC has been recently studied in two reports in which it was demonstrated that low levels of miR-125a-5p and Saracatinib in vivo miR-146a Morin Hydrate were independent prognostic factors in respect of overall survival [11, 12]. MiR-125a-5p directly targets ERBB2, and although trastuzumab did not have an effect alone, it enhanced the growth inhibitory effect of pre-miR-125a in GC cells [11]. MiR-146a targeted EGFR and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase, and overexpression of miR146a inhibited migration and invasion of GC cells [12]. MiR-21 and miR-181b showed high expression in gastric tumors compared

with normal tissue, and overexpression of both was associated with a worse overall survival in patients either treated with S-1/oxaliplatin or with doxifluridine/oxaliplatin [13]. Brenner et al. [14] compared miRNA levels in GC patients with or without recurrence within 36 months of surgery. MiR-451, miR-199a-3p, and miR-195 were highly expressed in the patients with early recurrence, and low miR-451 expression predicted a better disease-specific survival [14]. Clearly, miRNAs associate with meaningful clinicopathological parameters such as survival, but there is some heterogeneity of the results that can depend on the sample type (plasma, nonneoplastic tissue, or cancer tissue) and stage of the disease. One possible mechanism of miRNA action in GC is their effect on invasion. MiR-370 is highly expressed in human gastric tumors, and its overexpression leads to enhanced growth, migration, and anchorage-independent growth in AGS-GFPM2 GC cells.

As a result, the efficacy of these agents in the treatment of gas

As a result, the efficacy of these agents in the treatment of gastroparesis is limited. Another option is surgical therapy of gastroparesis.14–16 Complete gastrectomy has been mainly employed to improve the symptoms in postsurgical gastroparesis (PSG).17,18 Therefore, gastroparesis brings continuing challenges

for this website physicians. In recent years, high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has emerged as a new therapeutic modality for patients with refractory gastroparesis.19–22 High-frequency GES with the Enterra Therapy system (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) has been approved for use under the Humanitarian Device Exemption by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Belnacasan datasheet gastroparesis of diabetic and idiopathic etiologies that are refractory to all medical management.23 The device produces intermittent bursts of high-frequency (∼14 cycles per second), short-duration pulses (∼330 µs) that are three to four times faster than the native gastric slow wave frequency. Recent studies have shown that high-frequency GES improves nausea and vomiting scores, health-related quality of life, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), and health-care costs.24–28 However, the effects on gastric emptying are not

uniform. The sample size of most treatment trials and clinical experiences are relatively small, although results are generally positive.29–53 Therefore, larger patient sample sizes would be preferred in order to obtain

a reliable result. Although O’Grady et al. indicated that this kind of GES, which is neurostimulation, can improve symptoms and gastric emptying,54 the sample size in the meta-analysis was small, and data in abstracts were also included, which might decrease the accuracy of the study. However, Zhang and Chen doubted that high-frequency GES improved Bumetanide gastric emptying and could explain the improvement of symptoms.55 As a result, the relationship between the improvement of symptoms and gastric emptying is still a debated issue needing further research. It should also be noted that neither O’Grady et al. nor Zhang and Chen evaluated a detailed subgroup analysis of the main etiologies of gastroparesis patients, namely diabetes mellitus, idiopathic, and previous surgical procedures.56 Therefore, we are faced with discussion about whether the improvement of gastric emptying is associated with symptom improvement, and whether high-frequency GES has the same effect on the diabetic gastroparesis (DG), idiopathic gastroparesis (IG), and PSG subgroups. In order to address these problems, the primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to acquire more data about gastroparesis patients treated by high-frequency GES, while also taking into consideration that the quality of papers in the analysis would vary.


chemokine changes were abolished when TNF-α recepto


chemokine changes were abolished when TNF-α receptor was neutralized by Etanercept. To dissect the role of PMN in this context, we pretreated rats with Repertaxin (Rep), a small molecule inhibitor of CXCR1 and CXCR2, to block recruitment and activation of PMN by CXCL1 or CXCL2 after cell transplantation. In Rep-treated rats, transplanted cell numbers increased at most by 2-fold, which was less than after Thal, p<0.001. Finally, learn more we tested cell priming before transplantation with Thal plus or minus bosentan to block endothelin-1 A/B receptors. Liver repopulation increased in retrorsine/PH-conditioned rats after bosentan-primed but not after Thal-primed cells, p<0.05. Conclusions: Transplanted cell engraftment and liver repopulation benefited from Thal pre-treatment independently of PMN or KC-mediated inflammation. The synergism with ET1 receptor blockade and Thal indicates this combined drug approach will advance cell therapy applications. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Preeti Viswanathan, Sorabh Kapoor, Brigid Joseph, Ekaterine Berishvili, Sanjeev Gupta Introduction: The inflammasome plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NASH and alcoholic hepatitis, and HIF1 α is

required for sustained inflammasome activity. Digoxin was identified with potent HIF1 α antagonist but its role in liver disease is unexamined. Aim: Ruxolitinib manufacturer To assess whether a low dose of digoxin has therapeutic effects in NASH and alcoholic hepatitis in mice, and investigate the molecular mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were placed on a 45% high fat diet (HFD) for 11weeks with and without digoxin (ip 1mg/kg twice a week). Digoxin 1mg/kg ip daily in mice results in the therapeutic serum levels achieved in humans (0.5-2 ng/ml). Plasma ALT, liver histology, neutrophil staining, leukocytes profiling, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and gene transcriptome microarrays were

analyzed. The ability of digoxin to inhibit inflammasome in mouse and human macro-phages was tested. The chronic plus binge model of alcoholic hepatitis and LPS/D-GalN hepatitis models were also performed. Results: In all three models digoxin resulted in reduced histological injury, neutrophilic infiltrate and lower serum ALT’s (417 +/− 398 U/L in HFD vs 91 +/− 73 Depsipeptide price U/L in HFD+DIG, P< 0.001). Starting digoxin after 4 weeks HFD still showed significant reduction in liver inflammation (neutrophil 24.6% in HFD vs 14.3% in HFD+DIG; monocytes 31.6% in HFD vs 19.1% in HFD+DIG) without a reduction in food intake. In LPS/D-GalN hepatitis a dose titration of twice, a quarter and a twentieth of the human equivalent dose resulted in improvement of liver hemorrhage and necrosis, reduction in liver HIF-1 α and Pro-IL-1 β transcripts as well as the proteins of IL-1 β, HIF-1 α, pro-IL-1 β and cleaved (P10) caspase-1.

In conclusion, our data show that

In conclusion, our data show that PF-01367338 TP-receptor blockade with terutroban significantly reduces portal pressure in cirrhotic rats by decreasing hepatic vascular resistance (with a similar and comparable order of magnitude in both cirrhotic models), suggesting that terutroban

may represent a useful agent in the treatment of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. However, in further translational steps of the investigation special care must be taken regarding possible effects reducing MAP. The work was carried out at the Centre Esther Koplowitz, Barcelona. The authors thank Montse Monclús for excellent technical assistance. “
“A combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NUC) is the current standard of care for controlling hepatitis B recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, long-term HBIG administration is associated with several unresolved issues, including limited availability and extremely high cost, and thus several protocols for treatment with low-dose HBIG combined with NUC or HBIG-free regimens have been developed. This article reviews

recent advances in post-OLT hepatitis B virus (HBV) control and future methodological directions. New NUC such as entecavir, tenofovir or lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil combinations induce a very low frequency of viral resistance. The withdrawal of HBIG after several months of OLT under EX 527 chemical structure new NUC continuation also has permissible effects. Even after HBV reactivation, NUC can usually achieve viral control when viral markers are strictly followed up. Another approach is to induce self-producing anti-HBV antibodies via vaccination with a hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine.

PD184352 (CI-1040) However, HBV vaccination is not sufficiently effective in patients to treat liver cirrhosis type B after OLT because immune tolerance to the virus has already continued for several decades. Trials of its safety and cost-effectiveness are required. This review advocates a safe and economical approach to controlling post-OLT HBV recurrence. “
“Background and Aims:  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is reported to be associated with or to cause type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our study aimed to elucidate the role of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHOL) levels in the association between anti-HCV seropositivity and T2DM in an HCV-endemic area. Methods:  We analyzed a computerized dataset of 56 338 residents from a community-based comprehensive screening program in Tainan County in southern Taiwan. Fasting glucose, anti-HCV status, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) status, platelet counts, TG levels, CHOL levels, age, gender, and body mass index were included in the analyses. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with T2DM.