It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the com

It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. (C) 2015

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Biodegradable polymers are compatible, permeable and nontoxic, thus they can provide a useful tool for drug delivery or tissue engineering. These polymers can form hydrogels, which are suitable vehicles for different types of materials e.g. drugs, bioactive molecules or cells. In the case of dentistry, photopolymerization is an obvious method to JQEZ5 obtain in situ useable devices which can provide a more efficient way of tailoring drug release. A hydrogel system was developed based on poly-gamma-glutamic acid that was modified with methacryloyl groups to achieve this purpose. The resulting new reactive structure was proved by NMR spectroscopy. The swelling ratio of this type of hydrogel

has been found remarkable, over 300 % after 24 h, and it can release 5 ng/mm(2) metronidazole. The prepared hydrogels were nontoxic as viability, cytotoxicity tests and cell morphology investigations proved it. These results render this model system an excellent candidate for use as an in situ curing local drug delivery device. The new photoactive system can be utilized in the treatment of periodontal diseases or raising the effectiveness of drugs used only in the minimal effective dose.”
“In-line monitoring tools are still required to understand and control animal cell processes, particularly in the case of vaccine production. Here, in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantification of components in culture media was performed using microcarrier-based Dinaciclib cell line cultivations of adherent Vero cells. Because microcarriers were found to interfere with NIRS spectra acquisition, a suitable and innovative in situ calibration was developed for bioreactor cultures.

A reliable and accurate NIRS technique for the quantification of glucose and lactate was established, with a calibration standard error of 0.30 and 0.21 gl(-1), respectively. The robustness of this method was evaluated by performing NIRS calibration with operating conditions similar to those of industrial processes, including parameters such as microcarrier concentrations, cell seeding states and changes in analyte concentration due to selleck screening library feed and harvest strategies. Based on this calibration procedure, the predicted analyte concentrations in unknown samples was measured by NIRS analyses with an accuracy of 0.36 gl(-1) for glucose and 0.29 gl(-1) for lactate. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test has evolved in multiple laboratories, introducing variation in materials and methods.

In addition to these non-covalent interactions, O-H center dot ce

In addition to these non-covalent interactions, O-H center dot center dot center dot O(water) and pi-pi stacking interactions are also observed in 2. The formation of complex salts of definite composition with tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate ions suggest that [Co(phen)(2)CO3](+) may be used as binding agent for weakly coordinating fluoroanions i.e. BF4- and PF6-. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE. To develop and validate a partially automated algorithm to identify surgical site infections (SSIs) using commonly available electronic selleck chemicals data

to reduce manual chart review.\n\nDESIGN. Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing specific surgical procedures over a 4-year period from 2007 through 2010 (algorithm development cohort) or over a 3-month period from January 2011 through March 2011 (algorithm validation cohort).\n\nSETTING. A single academic safety-net hospital in a major metropolitan area.\n\nPATIENTS. Patients undergoing at least 1 included surgical procedure during the study period.\n\nMETHODS. Procedures were identified in the National Healthcare Safety Network; SSIs were identified by manual chart review. Commonly available electronic

data, including microbiologic, laboratory, and administrative data, were identified via a clinical data warehouse. Algorithms using combinations of these electronic variables were constructed and assessed for their ability to identify SSIs and reduce ATM Kinase Inhibitor DNA Damage inhibitor chart review.\n\nRESULTS. The most efficient algorithm identified in the development cohort combined microbiologic Akt inhibitor data with postoperative procedure and diagnosis codes. This algorithm resulted in 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Time savings from the algorithm was almost 600 person-hours

of chart review. The algorithm demonstrated similar sensitivity on application to the validation cohort.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. A partially automated algorithm to identify potential SSIs was highly sensitive and dramatically reduced the amount of manual chart review required of infection control personnel during SSI surveillance.”
“Different field isolates of the ‘beet poleroviruses’ Beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) and Beet chlorosis virus (BChV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) collected in France and Poland were evaluated for transmissibility from and to sugar beet plants by different aphid species. In general, both BMYV and BChV were efficiently transmitted by Myzus persicae and by a French clone of Macrosiphum euphorbiae. In contrast, transmissibility of the two poleroviruses by an English clone of M. euphorbiae was evidently weaker, although the aphid samples contained the virus as demonstrated by RT-PCR. None of the BMYV or BChV isolates was transmitted by Aphis fabae or Myzus ascalonicus. In attempting to correlate biological properties with molecular variations, the RT proteins were sequenced.

Regular digital ano-rectal examination (DARE) is a type of screen

Regular digital ano-rectal examination (DARE) is a type of screening that has been recommended by some experts. How widely this forms part of HIV management guidelines is unclear. Methods: The protocol was registered

prospectively (CRD42013005188; We systematically reviewed 121 regional and national HIV guidelines and searched for guidelines from, PubMed and Web of Science databases up to 5th August 2013 for recommendations of DARE as a means of anal cancer screening in HIV positive MSM. Guidelines were examined in detail if they were clinical guidelines, including both prevention and treatment protocols and were in English. Guidelines were excluded if they were restricted to limited areas (e. g. antiretroviral therapy only, children or pregnant women, strategies for prevention/testing). Information was extracted regarding recommendation of DARE selleck chemicals llc Epigenetics inhibitor as a screening method,

the frequency of DARE recommended, target population for screening and the strength of evidence supporting this. Results: 30 regional and national guidelines were included and examined in detail. Only 2 recommended DARE. The ‘European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines’ recommends DARE every 1-3 years for HIV positive MSM whilst the ‘US Guideline for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents’ recommends an annual DARE for the HIV + population in general. None of these guidelines specify the age of commencing screening. In each case, the highest level of evidence supporting these two recommendations CH5183284 cost was expert opinion. Conclusions: Few HIV guidelines discuss or recommend DARE as a means of anal cancer screening. Studies of the efficacy,

acceptability and cost-effectiveness of DARE are needed to assess its role in anal cancer screening.”
“The care and outcome of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis is directly dependent on their hemodialysis access. A brachiocephalic fistula (BCF) is commonly placed in the elderly and in patients with a failed lower-arm, or radiocephalic, fistula. However, there are numerous complications such that the BCF has an average patency of only 3.6 years. A leading cause of BCF dysfunction and failure is stenosis in the arch of the cephalic vein near its junction with the axillary vein, which is called cephalic arch stenosis (CAS). Using a combined clinical and computational investigation, we seek to improve our understanding of the cause of CAS, and to develop a means of predicting CAS risk in patients with a planned BCF access. This paper details the methodology used to determine the hemodynamic consequences of the post-fistula environment and illustrates detailed results for a representative sample of patient-specific anatomies, including a single, bifurcated, and trifurcated arch.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Breast cancer-

(C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Breast cancer-associated mutations affecting the highly-conserved C-terminal BRCT domains of the tumor

suppressor gene breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) fully disrupt the ability of BRCA1 to interact with acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCA), the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing de novo fatty acid biogenesis. Specifically, BRCA1 interacts solely with the phosphorylated (inactive) form of ACCA (P-ACCA), and the formation of the BRCA1/P-ACCA complex interferes with ACCA activity by preventing P-ACCA dephosphorylation. One of the hallmarks of aggressive cancer cells is a high rate of energy-consuming anabolic processes driving the synthesis of lipids, proteins, and DNA (all of which are regulated by the energy status of the cell). The ability of BRCA1 to stabilize AG-120 ic50 the phosphorylated/inactive form of ACCA strongly suggests that the tumor suppressive function of BRCA1

closely depends on its ability to mimic a cellular-low-energy status, which is known to block tumor cell anabolism and suppress the malignant phenotype. Interestingly, physical exercise and lack of obesity in adolescence have been associated with significantly delayed breast cancer onset for Ashkenazi Jewish women carrying BRCA1 gene mutations. Further clinical AZD4547 order work may explore a chemopreventative role of “low-energy-mimickers” deactivating the ACCA-driven “lipogenic phenotype” in women with inherited mutations in BRCA1. This goal might be obtained with current therapeutic approaches useful in treating the metabolic syndrome and associated disorders in humans (e.g., type 2 diabetes and obesity), including metformin, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), calorie deprivation, and exercise. Alternatively, new forthcoming ACCA inhibitors may be relevant in the management of BRCA1-dependent breast cancer susceptibility and development. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Object. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) can be an alternative

option for carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of ischemic stroke caused by carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of stent design on the incidence of procedural and postprocedural embolism SB202190 supplier associated with CAS treatment.\n\nMethods. Ninety-six symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, consisting of 79 males and 17 females, with moderate to severe carotid artery stenosis and a mean age of 69.0 years were treated with CAS. The stent type (48 closed-cell and 48 open-cell stents) was randomly allocated before the procedure. Imaging, procedural, and clinical outcomes were assessed and compared. The symptomatic subgroup (76 patients) was also analyzed to determine the influence of stent design on outcome.\n\nResults.

(C) 2011 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“There are seve

(C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“There are several reports suggesting that genetic factors contribute to the severity of infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Infants hospitalized

with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) due to RSV are at a significantly increased risk for both recurrent wheezing and childhood asthma. Uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) is a secretory protein expressed in the airways, and speculated to have anti-inflammatory activity. The presence of the -112G/A polymorphism in the UGRP1 promoter was found to have a significant correlation with asthma phenotype. Also plasma UGRP1 levels were shown to be associated both with this polymorphism and the LDC000067 clinical trial severity of asthma. The study population consisted

of 62 previously healthy infants, <= 12 months Dinaciclib Cell Cycle inhibitor of age, who were hospitalized with RSV LRTI, and a control group of 99 healthy adults. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. UGRP1 serum levels were determined using ELISA. There were no significant differences in the overall distribution of UGRP1 -112G/A polymorphism genotypes or alleles between the hospitalized infants and healthy adults. A comparison of serum UGRP1 concentration measured at the time of admission and discharge between patients with and without the -112A allele revealed that there was no relation between the presence of the -112A allele and serum UGRP1 in hospitalized infants with RSV infection. Furthermore, there was no relationship between severity of RSV infection and genotype or serum UGRP1 concentration. These results suggest that UGRP1 does not have a major role in the development of severe RSV infection. J. Med. Virol. 83:1086-1092, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Ito T, Ostry DJ. Speech sounds alter facial skin sensation. J Neurophysiol mTOR inhibitor 107: 442-447, 2012. First published October 19, 2011; doi:10.1152/jn.00029.2011.-Interactions between auditory and

somatosensory information are relevant to the neural processing of speech since speech processes and certainly speech production involves both auditory information and inputs that arise from the muscles and tissues of the vocal tract. We previously demonstrated that somatosensory inputs associated with facial skin deformation alter the perceptual processing of speech sounds. We show here that the reverse is also true, that speech sounds alter the perception of facial somatosensory inputs. As a somatosensory task, we used a robotic device to create patterns of facial skin deformation that would normally accompany speech production. We found that the perception of the facial skin deformation was altered by speech sounds in a manner that reflects the way in which auditory and somatosensory effects are linked in speech production. The modulation of orofacial somatosensory processing by auditory inputs was specific to speech and likewise to facial skin deformation.

6 (1)degrees The 2,4-difluoroanilino residue is


6 (1)degrees. The 2,4-difluoroanilino residue is

oriented at a dihedral angle of 68.2 (1)degrees with respect to the phenoxy ring. In the crystal, N-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds between the amino group and the carbonyl O atom of the oxepinone ring link the molecules into infinte chains along the c axis.”
“AIM To assess treatment effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on walking of children Cell Cycle inhibitor with leg spasticity due to cerebral palsy (CP) compared with usual care.\n\nMETHOD We systematically searched the databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PEDro, EMBASE, and PubMed from July 1993 until July 2009 and additionally screened reference lists. Randomized controlled trials assessing functional outcomes on walking of children with CP were included. The intervention had to contain BoNT-A into the lower limb and be compared with usual care. The methodological quality and clinical relevance were independently assessed by two of the authors (UCR, CHGB). If statistical pooling was not feasible, we performed a best-evidence synthesis.\n\nRESULTS Eight trials were included. Trials comparing BoNT-A plus usual care or physiotherapy versus usual care or physiotherapy alone showed moderate evidence for functional outcomes at CAL-101 clinical trial 2 to 6, 12, and 24 weeks

follow-up in favour of BoNT-A. Studies comparing BoNT-A versus casting showed strong evidence for no difference in effects between these interventions. A limitation of our review was the exclusion of studies not published in English, Dutch, or German. The heterogeneity of the included studies, especially for outcome measures and follow-up assessments, prompted us to refrain from statistical pooling, whichmight also be considered a limitation.\n\nINTERPRETATION The use of BoNT-A with usual care or physiotherapy seems to improve walking

of children with CP, but results should be appraised carefully owing to the limited quality of included trials.”
“The authors have demonstrated the feasibility and JIB-04 mouse principle of utilizing silica nanospheres (SNSs) as a pattern for selective area growth of metamorphic InP on GaAs(001) substrate. SNSs with the average diameter of similar to 460 nm were uniformly and closely distributed on GaAs by spin-coating. The hexagonal array of the SNSs is monolayer, which acts as a nanosphere pattern with high aspect ratio. Nearly 2-mu m-thick InP epitaxial layer was deposited through the intersphere spaces using conventional two-step growth by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The complete coalescence of metamorphic InP over SNSs has been achieved via the epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that threading dislocations caused by the lattice mismatch (similar to 3.8%) between InP and GaAs have been blocked by SNSs.

SG was hydrolyzed by bacterial enzyme into S which was absorbed i

SG was hydrolyzed by bacterial enzyme into S which was absorbed in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the microflora in the intestinal lumen and the efflux transporter of intestinal epithelial cells on the absorption process of SG and S. After oral administration of antibiotics in Sprague-Dawley rats, the reduced

bacterial enzyme formation significantly hinders the absorption of SG, whereas scarcely that of S. The absorption study in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion revealed that S could be absorbed throughout the intestine of rats. The effective intestinal permeability of S in the jejunum was much lower than in the other sections of the GI tract. The efflux transporter promoted SG secretion into lumen from enterocytes, which hindered the absorption of both SG and S into the bloodstream. Nutlin-3 supplier The efflux transporter protein TH-302 nmr inhibitor (verapamil, probenecid and reserpine) remarkably enhanced the absorption of S and the bioconversion of S into SG in both the rat intestine and Caco-2-monolayer models. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Pain from knee osteoarthritis creates a significant burden for symptomatic patients, who are often forced to change their lifestyle because of their symptoms. Activity modification, therapy, weight

loss, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, shoe orthotics, bracing, and injections are the nonoperative options available. New technologies are also emerging in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Ultimately, these therapeutic Stem Cell Compound Library modalities should reduce pain and increase the overall functioning of patients. These nonoperative modalities give the clinician several effective options before surgical management is considered.”
“Natural genetic variation is a rich resource for identifying novel elements of cellular pathways such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER and cells respond with the conserved unfolded

protein response (UPR), which includes large-scale gene expression changes. Although ER stress can be a cause or a modifying factor of human disease, little is known of the amount of variation in the response to ER stress and the genes contributing to such variation. To study natural variation in ER stress response in a model system, we measured the survival time in response to tunicamycin-induced ER stress in flies from 114 lines from the sequenced Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel of wild-derived inbred strains. These lines showed high heterogeneity in survival time under ER stress conditions. To identify the genes that may be driving this phenotypic variation, we profiled ER stress-induced gene expression and performed an association study. Microarray analysis identified variation in transcript levels of numerous known and previously unknown ER stress-responsive genes.

Another simpler proton pump that co-localizes with the V-ATPase o

Another simpler proton pump that co-localizes with the V-ATPase occurs in plants and many protists: the single-subunit H(+)-PPase [H(+)-translocating PPase (inorganic pyrophosphatase)]. Little is known about the relative contribution of these two proteins to the acidification of intracellular compartments. In the present study, we show that the expression

of a chimaeric derivative of the GSK2879552 molecular weight A rabidopsis thaliana H(+)-PPhase AVP1, which is preferentially targeted to internal membranes of yeast, alleviates the phenotypes associated with V-ATPase deficiency. Phenotypic complementation was achieved both with a yeast strain with its V-ATPase specifically inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and with a vma1-null mutant lacking a catalytic V-ATPase subunit. Cell staining with vital fluorescent dyes showed that AVP1 recovered vacuole acidification and normalized the endocytic pathway of the vow mutant. Biochemical and immunochemical studies further demonstrated that a significant

fraction of heterologous H(+)-PPase is located at the vacuolar membrane. These results raise CBL0137 the question of the occurrence of distinct proton pumps in certain single-membrane organelles, such as plant vacuoles, by proving yeast V-ATPase activity dispensability and the capability of H(+)-PPase to generate, by itself, physiologically suitable internal pH gradients. Also, they suggest new ways of engineering macrolide drug tolerance and outline an experimental system for testing alternative roles for fungal and animal V-ATPases, other than the mere acidification of subcellular organelles.”
“DEAD box helicases unwind RNA duplexes at the expense

of ATP hydrolysis. Recently, unwinding has been demonstrated in the absence of ATP hydrolysis. Herein, we show that ADP . BeF(x) supports RNA unwinding by YxiN, a DEAD box helicase that specifically recognizes a hairpin in 23S rRNA. ADP-AlF(x) and ADP.MgF(x) do not promote RNA unwinding, but all ATP analogues induce a closed conformation of the helicase core as required for RNA unwinding. Our results show that the interdomain cleft in the helicase core closes upon ATP binding at the beginning of the cycle. Reopening Vorinostat solubility dmso occurs after ATP hydrolysis, most likely coupled to phosphate release.”
“Obesity, type-2 diabetes and low-grade inflammation are becoming worldwide epidemics. In this regard, the literature provides a novel concept that we call “MicrObesity” (Microbes and Obesity), which is devoted to deciphering the specific role of dysbiosis and its impact on host metabolism and energy storage. In the present review, we discuss novel findings that may partly explain how the microbial community participates in the development of the fat mass development, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation that characterise obesity.

“Many genodermatoses present early in life with a chronic

“Many genodermatoses present early in life with a chronic and often debilitating, progressive course with multi-organ BMS-777607 involvement and significant morbidity or even mortality. Therefore, timely determination of the correct diagnosis is highly needed to improve approaches of patient care. Considering the common geno- and phenotypic variability of genodermatoses, this is most accurately provided

by means of molecular diagnostics. Characterization of disease-causing genetic aberrations along an algorithmic diagnostic approach further paves the way for strategies of targeted therapeutic intervention.”
“In order to find an effective absorbent material based on chitosan which has good adsorption selectivity for

heavy metals, we prepared thiourea-modified chitosan resin with Pb(II) as template (TMCR template). TMCR template was synthesized by using O-carboxymethylated AZD1208 datasheet chitosan to absorb Pb(II) ions first and then being cross-linked with a polymeric Schiff’s base of thiourea/glutaraldehyde. The effects of parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorption of TMCR template were studied. The result showed the maximum uptake of Pb(II) was found to be 2.02 mmol/g at pH 6.0, 25 degrees C. Adsorption experiments showed the TMCR template had high selectivity for Pb(II) in solution containing binary mixtures with Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). The experimental data also indicated that the adsorption process was exothermic spontaneous

and fit well with Lagergren’s pseudo-second-order model in comparison to pseudo-first-order kinetic. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Being supportive cells for neurons in the central nervous system, astrocytes have recently found to be associated with neurogenesis. Ventral mesencephalon (VM) astrocytes were also detected being instructive for VM dopaminergic (DA) neurogenesis, but the underling mechanisms are still unclear. This research is to figure out whether VM astrocytes are more efficient than those from other brain regions in inducing VM DA neurons from their precursors and whether transforming FG-4592 Angiogenesis inhibitor growth factor-beta s (TGF-beta s) are the underlying molecules. We found that, compared with astrocytes preparations from striatum and hippocampus, VM astrocytes preparations displayed markedly higher efficacy in inducing DA neurogenesis. Besides, they also expressed higher level of TGF-beta 3 than those of two other regions. When TGF-beta 3 gene expression in astrocytes preparations was inhibited by its antisense oligonucleotide, the induction of DA neurons decreased to a similar level among these three astrocytes preparations.

In this study, a total of 72 endoscopic bile duct biopsies, inclu

In this study, a total of 72 endoscopic bile duct biopsies, including

40 adenocarcinomas and 32 benign cases, were immunohistochemically Selleckchem HIF inhibitor examined for the expression of S100P, von Hippel-Lindau gene product (pVHL), and IMP3 to evaluate their diagnostic value. The results showed that 36 adenocarcinomas (90%) exhibited strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining for S100P, of which 30 (83.3%) showed diffuse immunoreactivity. Intermediate to strong cytoplasmic staining for IMP3 was demonstrated in 31 tumors (77.5%) (15 diffuse, 16 focal). Completely negative staining for pVHL was observed in 37 adenocarcinomas. In the remaining 3 tumors, focal (1) or diffuse (2) membranous and cytoplasmic pVHL immunoreactivity was detected. Twenty-eight tumors (70%) showed a S100P+/IMP3+/pVHL- staining pattern, 6 (15%) with a S100P+/IMP3-/pVHL- pattern, and 2 (5%) with a S100P-/IMP3+/pVHL- pattern. All 32 benign biopsies were completely negative for IMP3 with the exception of 2 cases with focal dysplasia where focal immunoreactivity was observed. Thirty SB525334 supplier benign biopsies (93.8%) were positive for pVHL with a diffuse staining

pattern observed in 28 cases (93.3%). Eight benign biopsies (25%) showed focal S100P positivity. Twenty-two benign biopsies (68.8%) displayed a S100P-/IMP3-/pVHL+ staining pattern. In conclusion, an immunohistochemical panel consisting of S100P, pVHL, and IMP3 can be helpful in distinguishing adenocarcinoma from reactive epithelial changes on challenging bile duct biopsies. The findings of focal S100P and/or IMP3 expression with reciprocal loss of pVHL immunoreactivity in a few benign biopsies suggest a use of these markers in the detection of early epithelial dysplasia that

may be beyond histologic Selleckchem 17DMAG recognition. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“An increased prothrombotic state is a major risk factor for the development of heart attacks, strokes, and venous thromboembolism. Platelet activation and aggregation play an important role in determining a prothrombotic state. Although pharmaceutical agents such as aspirin, heparin, and warfarin are able to reduce prothrombotic tendency, long-term drug treatment may produce a variety of side effects, including bleeding. Diet is generally recognized to be significantly involved in modifying the individual risk for the development of thrombotic diseases, although its influence during the treatment of these disorders is probably less important. Dietary intervention has proven effective in lowering serum lipid levels, which are otherwise essential elements in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.