It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the com

It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. (C) 2015

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Biodegradable polymers are compatible, permeable and nontoxic, thus they can provide a useful tool for drug delivery or tissue engineering. These polymers can form hydrogels, which are suitable vehicles for different types of materials e.g. drugs, bioactive molecules or cells. In the case of dentistry, photopolymerization is an obvious method to JQEZ5 obtain in situ useable devices which can provide a more efficient way of tailoring drug release. A hydrogel system was developed based on poly-gamma-glutamic acid that was modified with methacryloyl groups to achieve this purpose. The resulting new reactive structure was proved by NMR spectroscopy. The swelling ratio of this type of hydrogel

has been found remarkable, over 300 % after 24 h, and it can release 5 ng/mm(2) metronidazole. The prepared hydrogels were nontoxic as viability, cytotoxicity tests and cell morphology investigations proved it. These results render this model system an excellent candidate for use as an in situ curing local drug delivery device. The new photoactive system can be utilized in the treatment of periodontal diseases or raising the effectiveness of drugs used only in the minimal effective dose.”
“In-line monitoring tools are still required to understand and control animal cell processes, particularly in the case of vaccine production. Here, in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantification of components in culture media was performed using microcarrier-based Dinaciclib cell line cultivations of adherent Vero cells. Because microcarriers were found to interfere with NIRS spectra acquisition, a suitable and innovative in situ calibration was developed for bioreactor cultures.

A reliable and accurate NIRS technique for the quantification of glucose and lactate was established, with a calibration standard error of 0.30 and 0.21 gl(-1), respectively. The robustness of this method was evaluated by performing NIRS calibration with operating conditions similar to those of industrial processes, including parameters such as microcarrier concentrations, cell seeding states and changes in analyte concentration due to selleck screening library feed and harvest strategies. Based on this calibration procedure, the predicted analyte concentrations in unknown samples was measured by NIRS analyses with an accuracy of 0.36 gl(-1) for glucose and 0.29 gl(-1) for lactate. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test has evolved in multiple laboratories, introducing variation in materials and methods.

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