Discussion The discovery of clozapine has given some hope to hitherto treatment-resistant psychosis and some other neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been shown to have a better efficacy and side-effect profile over other typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The risk of causing agranulocytosis is well established and estimated to be 1%, a reason responsible for its initial withdrawal from the market before its reintroduction. Other life-threatening side effects, such as cardiomyopathies, seizures, diabetes complications, constipation, oesophagitis, have also been reported although infrequently.
The possible mechanisms by which clozapine cause oesophagitis and invariably haematemesis are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical unclear but may not be unrelated to its anticholinergic side effect [Tomer et al. 2002; Van Soest et al. 2008], resulting in loss of oesophageal motility, increase in lower sphincter relaxation, and loss of lower oesophageal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tone and pressure. Another mechanism was described by Praharaj and colleagues in which there is impairment of swallowing arising from the effect of clozapine on the
vagal regulation of oesophageal peristaltic movement as well as (apparent) hypersalivation [Praharaj et al. 2006]. Although reported cases of reflux oesophagitis are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical few, this is the the most common gastrointestinal complaint as a result of the use of clozapine [Laker and Cookson, 1997; Baker and Chengappa, 1998; Van Veggel et al. 2012]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case selleck chem report of a patient in subSaharan Africa without a previous history of upper gastrointestinal disease
such as peptic or duodenal ulcer. In a report Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by Laker and Cookson, 4 out of 36 (11%) patients treated with clozapine developed gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of reflux oesophagitis within 6 weeks of starting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clozapine with endoscopic evidence [Laker and Cookson 1997], 2 of which did not have a prior history of gastrointestinal disease as with this patient. newsletter subscribe Taylor and colleagues reported in a cross-sectional study that patients using clozapine were more likely to be on concomitant acid-suppressant medication compared Dacomitinib with those on those on other atypical antipsychotics [Taylor et al. 2010]. A temporal association between the use of clozapine and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease resulting in later use of acid-suppressant drugs was established in the study by Van Veggel and colleagues [Van Veggel et al. 2012]. Based on the Naranjo probability scale [Naranjo et al. 1981], clozapine is a probable cause of haematemesis in this patient (Naranjo probability score of 6). The evidence in support of this includes lack of prior history suggestive of a gastrointestinal disease, seizure or further haematemesis following discontinuation of clozapine. Furthermore, the patient was only on clozapine at the time of occurrence of the episodes of haematemesis.