2 and Ca(v)1.3 L-type channels in neurons is clearly important for unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term alterations in neuronal function. In this study, we used immunogold-labelling techniques and electron-microscopy (EM) to analyse the subcellular
distribution and density of both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channels in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vivo. We confirm that both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channel subtypes are predominantly but not exclusively located in postsynaptic dendritic processes and somata. Both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 are distributed throughout the dendritic buy BVD-523 tree. However, the smallest (distal) dendritic processes and spines have proportionally more calcium channels inserted into their plasma membrane than located within cytoplasmic compartments indicating the potential targeting of calcium channels to microdomains within neurons. Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channels are located at the postsynaptic density and also at extra-synaptic sites. The location of L-type Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels in distal dendrites and spines would thus place them at appropriate sites where they could initiate synapse to nucleus signalling. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published
by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We investigated the pharmacological effect of TRPV1 antagonists in anesthetized rodent models of bladder function.
Materials and Methods: The TRPV1 antagonists JNJ17203212 and JYL1421 were evaluated in the anesthetized rat volume induced micturition reflex model. JNJ17203212 was further evaluated in this model in capsaicin (Sigma (R)) desensitized rats, and in rat capsaicin and mouse citric acid models of irritant induced Selleck Staurosporine detrusor overactivity.
Results: Systemic JNJ17203212 and JYL1421 administration in the anesthetized rat volume induced micturition reflex model resulted in an increased Micturition threshold volume. JNJ17203212 also decreased bladder contraction amplitude but J’YL1421 had no effect. Capsaicin desensitization significantly increased baseline micturition threshold volume and decreased bladder contraction amplitude in the
volume induced mictuxition reflex model compared to those in sham treated controls and JNJ17203212 produced no further effect after capsaicin desensitization. JNJ17203212 was also effective in 2 models Urease of irritant induced detrusor overactivity, preventing the decrease in micturition threshold volume and the increase in bladder contraction amplitude observed with intravesical instillation of 10 mu M capsaicin, and the decreased voiding interval induced by intravesical citric acid.
Conclusions: The TRPV1 antagonists JNJ17203212 and JYL1421 increased the threshold for activation of the micturition reflex in the anesthetized rat volume induced micturition reflex model. This effect appeared to be mediated by capsaicin sensitive afferents. JNJ17203212 also inhibited detrusor overactivity induced by intravesical capsaicin and intravesical citric acid.