2 and Ca(v)1 3 L-type channels in neurons is clearly important fo

2 and Ca(v)1.3 L-type channels in neurons is clearly important for unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term alterations in neuronal function. In this study, we used immunogold-labelling techniques and electron-microscopy (EM) to analyse the subcellular

distribution and density of both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channels in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vivo. We confirm that both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channel subtypes are predominantly but not exclusively located in postsynaptic dendritic processes and somata. Both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 are distributed throughout the dendritic buy BVD-523 tree. However, the smallest (distal) dendritic processes and spines have proportionally more calcium channels inserted into their plasma membrane than located within cytoplasmic compartments indicating the potential targeting of calcium channels to microdomains within neurons. Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channels are located at the postsynaptic density and also at extra-synaptic sites. The location of L-type Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels in distal dendrites and spines would thus place them at appropriate sites where they could initiate synapse to nucleus signalling. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We investigated the pharmacological effect of TRPV1 antagonists in anesthetized rodent models of bladder function.

Materials and Methods: The TRPV1 antagonists JNJ17203212 and JYL1421 were evaluated in the anesthetized rat volume induced micturition reflex model. JNJ17203212 was further evaluated in this model in capsaicin (Sigma (R)) desensitized rats, and in rat capsaicin and mouse citric acid models of irritant induced Selleck Staurosporine detrusor overactivity.

Results: Systemic JNJ17203212 and JYL1421 administration in the anesthetized rat volume induced micturition reflex model resulted in an increased Micturition threshold volume. JNJ17203212 also decreased bladder contraction amplitude but J’YL1421 had no effect. Capsaicin desensitization significantly increased baseline micturition threshold volume and decreased bladder contraction amplitude in the

volume induced mictuxition reflex model compared to those in sham treated controls and JNJ17203212 produced no further effect after capsaicin desensitization. JNJ17203212 was also effective in 2 models Urease of irritant induced detrusor overactivity, preventing the decrease in micturition threshold volume and the increase in bladder contraction amplitude observed with intravesical instillation of 10 mu M capsaicin, and the decreased voiding interval induced by intravesical citric acid.

Conclusions: The TRPV1 antagonists JNJ17203212 and JYL1421 increased the threshold for activation of the micturition reflex in the anesthetized rat volume induced micturition reflex model. This effect appeared to be mediated by capsaicin sensitive afferents. JNJ17203212 also inhibited detrusor overactivity induced by intravesical capsaicin and intravesical citric acid.


PTEN inactivation and neuroendocrine differe


PTEN inactivation and neuroendocrine differentiation were related to refractoriness to bicalutamide therapy. These results support the hypothesis that neuroendocrine differentiation is caused by activation of the serine threonine kinase Akt pathway, which results from PTEN inactivation.”
“OBJECTIVE: In addition to their well-known osteogenic properties, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have developmental and regenerative roles that may impact tumorigenesis and promote tumor spread. Given that the most common site of tumor metastases to bone is the spine, determining whether BMPs can be linked to cancer is of particular relevance to surgeons treating primary or metastatic spinal disease. This article reviews the basic scientific and clinical

background of BMPs and their potential role in promoting cancer.

METHODS: A literature review to identify studies relating to BMP and tumorigenesis was conducted. Databases evaluated NVP-LDE225 included MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register through 2008.

RESULTS: Bone morphogenetic proteins are a diverse class of molecules belonging to the transforming growth factor-P superfamily that serve a variety of biologic functions. Bone morphogenetic proteins have critical roles in stem and progenitor cell biology as regulators of cellular expansion and differentiation. Transforming growth factor-beta and related cell signaling pathways as well as stem and progenitor cell signaling have been linked to cancer. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies suggest Poziotinib chemical structure a significant role of BMPs in promoting tumorigenesis and

metastasis. However, there are also comparable studies that imply that BMPs may have a negative effect on cancer.

CONCLUSION: There is no definitive association between BMPs and the promotion of tumorigenesis or metastasis. However, given the relatively large number of studies reporting a positive effect of BMPs on tumorigenesis or metastasis, the use of BMPs in patients with primary or metastatic spinal tumors 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl should be carefully considered.”
“Purpose: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravesical liposomes, a mucosal protective agent, compared to oral pentosan polysulfate sodium for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of the effect of 2 independent treatments (intravesical liposomes and oral pentosan polysulfate sodium) in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Ten possible responses (or measures) to treatment were monitored at 3 time points, including baseline, and weeks 4 and 8. A total of 24 patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome were evaluated in a 1:1 ratio to intravesical liposomes (80 mg/40 cc distilled water) once weekly or to oral pentosan polysulfate sodium (100 mg) 3 times daily for 4 weeks each.

In addition, individuals with anemia (n = 15) showed higher relat

In addition, individuals with anemia (n = 15) showed higher relative CBF in superior frontal, middle temporal, CB-839 concentration hippocampal, and gyrus rectus regions than those without anemia. In some regions (right superior temporal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, midline cuneus, and right precuneus); however, lower hemoglobin was associated with lower relative CBF.

In nondemented individuals, lower hemoglobin is associated with elevated relative CBF in specific

cortical areas but reduced CBF in other areas. Whether this association between anemia and CBF in the absence of chronic diseases and in a normal physiologic range is related to clinical endpoints warrants further study.”
“The immune system is implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. In anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD), immunological findings are equivocal and sparse. In this study, we investigated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine levels of tumor necrosis

factor-alpha (TNIF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL8) by peripheral blood leukocytes in 26 OCD patients, 26 GSAD patients, and 52 healthy controls. We found that leukocytes of OCD patients produced less IL-6 compared with matched controls, whereas no cytokine differences were found between GSAD patients and matched controls. When both patient groups were compared, a trend toward lower IL-6 levels in OCD patients aminophylline was observed. This supports the idea of immunological involvement PD 332991 in the pathophysiology of OCD and suggests that GSAD and OCD might be different in immunological respect. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Associations of inflammation with age-related pathologies are documented; however, it is not understood how changes in inflammation

over time impact healthy aging.

We examined associations of long-term change in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with concurrent onset of physical and cognitive impairment, subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in 1,051 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study. Biomarkers were measured in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006.

In 2005-2006, median age was 84.9 years, 63% were women and 17% non-white; 21% had at least a doubling in CRP over time and 23% had at least a doubling in IL-6. Adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, and 1996-1997 CRP level, each doubling in CRP change over 9 years was associated with higher risk of physical or cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.29; 95% confidence interval 1.15, 1.45). Results were similar for IL-6 (1.45; 1.20, 1.76). A doubling in IL-6 change over time, but not CRP, was associated with incident CVD events; hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.

Interobserver variability was also assessed for manual linear mea

Interobserver variability was also assessed for manual linear measurements of the same supine or prone series.

Results: Mean +/- SD linear size and volume of the 50

index calculi was 4.5 +/- 2.7 mm (range 1.8 to 16) and 141.7 +/- 456.1 mm(3), respectively. The mean supineprone error for automated stone volume was 16.3% compared with an average 11.7% 1-dimensional intra-observer error for manual axial measurement. Only 2 of 15 cases with a volume error of greater than 20% were 5 mm or greater in linear size. The average interobserver linear error for the same computerized tomography series Selleck MM-102 was 26.3% but automated volume measurement of the same series did not vary.

Conclusions: Automated noncontrast computerized tomography renal stone volume is more reproducible than manual linear size measurement and it avoids the often large interobserver variability seen with manual assessment. Since small linear differences correspond to much larger volume changes, greater absolute volume errors are acceptable. Automated volume measurement may be an improved clinical parameter to use for following the renal stone burden.”
“The gut microbiota is a highly FG-4592 datasheet specialized organ containing host-specific assemblages of microbes whereby metabolic activity directly impacts human health and disease. In vitro gut

fermentation models present an unmatched opportunity of performing studies frequently challenged in humans and animals owing to ethical concerns. Multidisciplinary systems biology analyses supported by ‘omics’ platforms remain widely neglected in the field of in vitro gut fermentation modeling but are key to advancing the significance of these models. Model-driven experimentation using a combination of in vitro gut fermentation and in vitro human cell models represent an advanced approach

in identifying complex host-microbe interactions and niches central to gut fermentation processes. The aim of this review is to highlight the advances and challenges exhibited by in vitro human gut fermentation modeling.”
“A Miconazole large number of studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of psychological and other non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic pain. While these methods are increasingly used to treat pain, remarkably few studies focused on the exploration of their neural correlates. The aim of this article was to review the findings from neuroimaging studies that evaluated the neural response to distraction-based techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), clinical hypnosis, mental imagery, physical therapy/exercise, biofeedback, and mirror therapy. To date, the results from studies that used neuroimaging to evaluate these methods have not been conclusive and the experimental methods have been suboptimal for assessing clinical pain.

In the primary meta-analysis, we included trials in which patient

In the primary meta-analysis, we included trials in which patients were randomly allocated to receive one of the two CPR techniques, according to dispatcher instructions; and in the secondary meta-analysis, we included observational cohort studies of chest-compression-only CPR. All studies had to supply survival data. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. A fixed-effects model was used for both meta-analyses because of an absence of heterogeneity among the studies


Findings In the primary meta-analysis, pooled data from three randomised trials showed that chest-compression-only CPR was associated with improved chance of survival compared with standard CPR (14% [211/1500] vs 12% [178/1531]; risk ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.46). GSK621 manufacturer The absolute increase

in survival was 2.4% (95% CI 0.1-4.9), and the number needed to treat was 41 (95% CI 20-1250). In the secondary meta-analysis of this website seven observational cohort studies, no difference was recorded between the two CPR techniques (8% [223/2731] vs 8% [863/11 152]; risk ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.83-1.11).

Interpretation For adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, instructions to bystanders from emergency medical services dispatch should focus on chest-compression-only CPR.”
“In excitable cells, membrane depolarization and activation of voltage-gated PAK5 Ca(2+) (Ca(v)) channels trigger numerous cellular responses,

including muscle contraction, secretion, and gene expression. Yet, while the mechanisms underlying excitation-contraction and excitation-secretion coupling have been extensively characterized, how neuronal activity is coupled to gene expression has remained more elusive. In this article, we will discuss recent progress toward understanding the relationship between patterns of channel activity driven by membrane depolarization and activation of the nuclear transcription factor CREB. We show that signaling strength is steeply dependent on membrane depolarization and is more sensitive to the open probability of Ca(v) channels than the Ca(2+) entry itself. Furthermore, our data indicate that by decoding Ca(v) channel activity, CaMKII (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase) links membrane excitation to activation of CREB in the nucleus. Together, these results revealed some interesting and unexpected similarities between excitation-transcription coupling and other forms of excitation-response coupling. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Background Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK.

Results: We could clearly demonstrate phosphorylation of the JAK/

Results: We could clearly demonstrate phosphorylation of the JAK/PI3K pathway and Akt signaling in podocytes by epoetin-beta, buy SCH 900776 darbepoetin-alpha and CERA. In the long-term animal study we found significantly reduced podocyte numbers in placebo-treated db/db mice compared to db/m control mice (7.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 10.2 +/- 0.9 per glomerular field; p < 0.05). Chronic CERA treatment ameliorated podocyte loss in kidneys of diabetic animals (8.5 +/- 0.5 per glomerular field; p < 0.05 vs. placebo-treated db/db mice).

Conclusion: EPO activates pro-survival intracellular pathways in podocytes in vitro, and ameliorates diabetes-induced podocyte loss in vivo. Chronic EPO administration may be a feasible way to protect podocyte from diabetic injury. Copyright Gefitinib solubility dmso (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“It is an open issue if vascular and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) lesions represent additive factors in the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as a preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at group level. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha

rhythms, which are affected (i.e. decreased in amplitude) by AD processes, are relatively preserved in MCI subjects in whom the cognitive decline is mainly explained by white-matter vascular load. Resting EEG was recorded in 40 healthy elderly (Nold), 80 MCI, and 40 AD subjects. In the MCI subjects, white-matter vascular load was quantified based on MRI (0-30 Wahlund visual rating scale). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), and beta 2 (20-30 Hz). Low resolution SPTLC1 electromagnetic source tomography (LORETA) was used for EEG source analysis. As expected, we observed that alpha I sources in parietal, occipital, and temporal areas were lower in amplitude in the AD and MCI subjects than in the Nold subjects, whereas the amplitude of wide delta sources was higher in the AD than in the Nold and MCI subjects. As novel results,

the amplitude of parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha I sources was higher in the MCI V+ (high vascular load; N= 42; MMSE = 26) than MCI V-group (low vascular load; N= 37; MMSE = 26.7). Furthermore, a weak but significant (p < 0.05) positive statistical correlation was found between the parietal alpha 1 sources and the score of Wahlund scale across all MCI subjects (i.e. the more severe white-matter lesions, the higher parietal alpha source power). The present results are in line with the additive model of cognitive impairment postulating that this arises as the sum of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular lesions. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: It was the aim of this study to investigate the relationship between normal renal function – estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – and visceral adiposity measured by CT in apparently healthy Korean women. Methods: A total of 425 apparently healthy women were recruited.

Results showed that participants had greater difficulty in suppre

Results showed that participants had greater difficulty in suppressing selleck chemicals emotionally negative memories

than neutral ones. ERPs and source analyses demonstrated that memory suppression processing for negative and neutral memories were generally associated with changes during early components of a time window of 70-260 ms, such as P1 and N2, mainly at the right inferior frontal gyrus and occipital lobe; suppression of aversive memories was associated with two major late ERP components between 380 and 800 ms, with significantly smaller later negativity (LN) but larger late parietal positivity (LPP), primarily at the right medial and superior frontal gyri. These results suggest that differences in early components may reflect early stages of suppression processing including visual awareness, attention reallocation, and executive processing. Differences in late components between suppression of aversive and neutral memories may reflect a process of down-regulating conscious recollection of memory representations supported by prefrontal and parietal networks. A less effective control of this process, as evidenced by smaller LN and larger LPP, may explain the fact that emotionally negative memories were harder to be suppressed. Altogether, these findings suggest that suppression of aversive memories requires down-regulation of

late conscious recollection, which click here can be dissociated from early visual and attention processing in memory suppression. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) can cause severe human disease dipyridamole characterized by either acute-onset hepatitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis and blindness, or a hemorrhagic syndrome. The existing nonhuman primate (NHP) model for RVF utilizes an intravenous (i.v.) exposure route in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Severe disease in these animals is infrequent, and large cohorts are needed to observe significant morbidity and mortality. To overcome these drawbacks, we evaluated the infectivity and pathogenicity of RVFV in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by i.v., subcutaneous (s.c.), and intranasal exposure routes to more closely mimic natural exposure. Marmosets were more susceptible to RVFV than rhesus macaques and experienced higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and viremia and marked aberrations in hematological and chemistry values. An overwhelming infection of hepatocytes was a major consequence of infection of marmosets by the i.v. and s.c. exposure routes. Additionally, these animals displayed signs of hemorrhagic manifestations and neurological impairment. Based on our results, the common marmoset model more closely resembles severe human RVF disease and is therefore an ideal model for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics.

EC were collected from the brachial artery and an antecubital vei

EC were collected from the brachial artery and an antecubital vein of 106 healthy adults (60 men and 46 women, age 18-77 years). Quantitative immunofluorescence was used to measure protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), Ser-1177 phosphorylated eNOS, manganese superoxide dismutase, nitrotyrosine, xanthine oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa Tideglusib datasheet B p65. Protein expression in EC obtained from brachial artery and antecubital vein sampling was moderately to strongly related (r = 0.59-0.81, all p < 0.0001, mean r = 0.70). Moreover, differences between subgroups in the lowest and highest tertiles of protein expression

in EC obtained from arterial samples were consistently reflected in EC obtained from venous collections. These findings indicate that interindividual and group differences in expression of several proteins involved in nitric oxide production, oxidant production, antioxidant defense and inflammatory signaling in EC obtained from brachial artery sampling are consistently reflected in EC buy Temsirolimus obtained

from venous samples. Thus, EC collected from peripheral veins may provide a useful surrogate for EC obtained from arteries for measurements of EC protein expression in humans. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Increasing evidence has suggested that differentiation of adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) to myofibroblasts plays an important role in arterial remodeling. The molecular mechanisms by which myofibroblast formation is regulated still remain largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A (PDE1A) in the formation of adventitial myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1). Methods and Results: AFs were

cultured by the explant method. Western blot and immunocytochemistry were applied for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) or protein Etomidate kinase C (PKC) alpha protein analysis. Results showed that TGF-beta(1) upregulated PDE1A protein expression in rat aortic AFs and pharmacological inhibition of PDE1A blocked TGF-beta(1)-induced alpha-SMA expression, a marker of myofibroblast formation, suggesting that the upregulation of PDE1A may mediate TGF-beta(1)-induced AF transformation. Moreover, calphostin C (a PKC inhibitor) inhibited TGF-beta(1)-induced alpha-SMA expression, whereas phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (a PKC activator) induced it. Finally, the upregulation of PKC alpha expression by TGF-beta(1) was also inhibited by PDE1A inhibition. Conclusions: Taken together, our data suggest that TGF beta(1) induces alpha-SMA expression and myofibroblast formation via a PDE1A-PKC alpha dependent mechanism. Our study thus unveils a novel signaling mechanism underlying TGF-beta(1)-induced adventitial myofibroblast formation. Copyright (C) 2009 S.

“L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) represent a severe compl

“L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) represent a severe complication of long-time pharmacotherapy in Parkinson’s disease that necessitates novel therapeutics. The acute and chronic effects PF-4708671 mw of K(V)7.2-7.5 channel openers (retigabine, flupirtine) on the severity of LID and parkinsonian signs were examined in comparison to the glutamate receptor antagonist amantadine

(positive control) in a rat model of LID. Acute treatment with retigabine (2.5, 5 mg/kg i.p.) and flupirtine (5, 10 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced the severity of abnormal involuntary movements (AIM) to a comparable extent as amantadine (20, 40 mg/kg s.c.), but flupirtine delayed the disappearance of AIM. Chronic treatment with retigabine (daily 5 mg/kg i.p. over 19 days combined with L-DOPA 10 mg i.p.) did not prevent or delay the development of LID, but reduced the severity of AIM, while antidyskinetic effects of amantadine

(40 mg/kg i.p.) were restricted to the first day of treatment. Retigabine caused sedation and ataxia which declined during the chronic treatment, but did not reduce the antiparkinsonian effects of L-DOPA in these experiments. Acute co-injections of retigabine selleck products (5 mg) together with L-DOPA (10 mg/kg) neither reduced the motor performance in the rotarod test nor exerted negative effects on the antiparkinsonian efficacy of L-DOPA in the block and stepping MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit test. Nevertheless, the sedative effects of retigabine may limit its therapeutic potential for the treatment of LID. The present data

indicate that K(V)7 channels deserve attention in the research of the pathophysiology of dyskinesias.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental process used to generate cell diversity during metazoan development that occurs when a cell divides to generate daughter cells adopting distinct fates. Stem cell divisions, for example, are a type of ACD and provide a source of new cells during development and in adult animals. Some ACDs produce a daughter cell that dies. In many cases, the reason why a cell divides to generate a dying daughter remains elusive. It was shown recently that denatured proteins are segregated asymmetrically during cell division. Here, we review data that provide interesting insights into how apoptosis is regulated during ACD and speculate on potential connections between ACD-induced cell death and partitioning of denatured proteins.”
“Background Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major target of the autoimmune response that occurs in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models of autoimmunity, treatment with a target antigen can modulate aggressive autoimmunity.

“This experiment investigated whether the

“This experiment investigated whether the Berzosertib ic50 perception of depth-reversible figures is

altered when the observer is in microgravity or hypergravity. A set of five bi-stable ambiguous figures was presented to ten participants in 1 g, 0 g, and 1.8 g during parabolic flight. The figures included static images such as the Necker cube; kinetic depth displays such as a moving plaid and a sphere cluster of moving dots appearing to rotate in one of two directions; and a silhouette photograph. For each stimulus figure, subjects reported which of the two possible perceptual configurations they saw first and then continuously indicated when perceptual reversals occurred for durations ranging from 20 to 30 s. The same first percept was reported in 1 g, 0 g. and 1.8 g. The time delay for the first reversal between the two possible image interpretations was longer and the number of reversals was fewer in 0 g as compared to 1 g for four of the five figures. The

opposite effects were seen when going from 0 g to 1.8 g. These findings confirm that, consistent with a multisensory approach to three-dimensional form perception, gravity has a clear effect on the interpretation of depth-based stimuli and this gravity-based component interferes https://www.selleckchem.com/products/10058-f4.html with visual perception stability. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic Urease acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from day 3 prior to conception till day 15 of pregnancy. We concentrated on DHA, AA, Mead acid, and EFA-index

[(omega-3 + omega-6)/(omega-7 + omega-9)] in maternal erythrocytes, maternal brain, and fetal brain. It was found that erythrocyte EFA/LCP sensitively reflects declining EFA/LCP status in pregnancy, although this decline was not apparent in maternal brain. Differences in erythrocyte EFA/LCP coincided with larger differences in fetal brain EFA/LCP as compared to EFA/LCP in maternal brain. Both maternal and fetal brains were affected by short-term EFA/LCP intake, but the developing fetal brain proved most sensitive. The inverse relationship between fetal brain AA and DHA suggests the need of a maternal dietary DHA/AA balance, at least in mice. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 in the Netherlands. Due to the high prevalence and world-wide distribution of this pathogen, it is essential to develop a sensitive and specific detection assay suitable for use in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Techniques based on PCR or real-time PCR are laborious and expensive.