Active bipolar superficial electrodes consisting of two parallel

Active bipolar superficial electrodes consisting of two parallel rectangular Ag/AgCl bars

(1 cm in length, 0.78 cm2 of contact area) were used with an internal amplifier to reduce the effects of electromagnetic interference and other noise. For SMM, the electrodes were fastened to the lower third of the muscle belly, which was identified by palpation during manually resisted flexion of the neck (Falla et al., 2002). For ABD, the electrodes were placed 2 cm away from the umbilicus on the rectus abdominal muscle (Duiverman et al., 2004). The ground electrode was fixed on the ulnar styloid process. All of the electrodes were fixed on the right side. The EMG signal collection and analysis were carried out as recommend by the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (Merletti, 1999). The activity of the respiratory muscles was analyzed by the root mean square (RMS) method. The participants were asked to quantify their sensation of dyspnea at rest and immediately after ILB on a scale of Epacadostat 0–10 using the modified Borg scale. The sample size was based on being able to detect at least a difference of 300 ml in the chest wall tidal volume (Romagnoli

et al., 2011). Considering our data of pilot study with six subjects (mean and standard deviation), a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and a statistical power of 0.80, the target sample size was set at 13 individuals. Thus, 15 patients were selected to account for the possibility of dropouts. The chest wall volumes measured during the six minutes at rest and two minutes of ILB (90–210 s) were analyzed using specific software. The mean rest values were compared to the ILB values with Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon’s test, depending on the data distribution. The EMG signals were processed according to the time-domain. One minute of

the signal (30–90 s) from the second set of two minutes at rest and one minute of the signal from the ILB (120–180 s) were analyzed. We evaluated the change Thiamine-diphosphate kinase from rest to ILB period expressed as percentage (relative change) analyzing by the Mann–Whitney test. All of the statistical procedures were carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, 15.0, Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Fifteen patients with COPD were initially evaluated. Two of the patients were excluded because they were not able to complete five minutes of ILB. Therefore, 13 participants were included in the analysis. However, the chest wall volume and muscular activity correlation was calculated from 12 participants, as artifacts in the EMG signal analyses precluded the use of the data from another participant.

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