Symptoms of cerebral malaria evaluated through modified SHIRPA protocol, such as: paralysis, Pictilisib order piloerection, and locomotor activity were only observed up to 5 days post-infection (data not shown). Furthermore, at day 5, an increase in parasitemia (19%) as well as in Evans blue accumulation in brain tissue and W/D lung ratio during P. berghei infection was observed ( Fig. 1C–D). P. berghei-infected mice demonstrated a greater number of areas with alveolar collapse ( Fig. 2A and D), neutrophil infiltration ( Fig. 2B and E) and interstitial oedema at days 1 and 5 compared to SAL mice ( Fig. 2C and F). However, the value of each of these parameters for infected
mice was higher at day 5 compared to day 1. Neutrophil infiltration was also observed when lung tissue was submitted to a Percoll gradient (neutrophil count in lung tissue SAL vs P. berghei-infected, at Neratinib in vivo day 1: 0.49 ± 0.11 × 106/lung tissue vs 0.73 ± 0.05 × 106/lung tissue, p < 0.05 and at day 5: 0.30 ± 0.07 × 106/lung tissue vs 0.67 ± 0.06 × 106/lung tissue,
p < 0.05). At day 1, there were more areas with interstitial oedema than observed at day 5 ( Fig. 1C). Since a heightened inflammatory response was observed in the lung tissue 1 day post-infection, cytokine production was also evaluated at this time point. IFN-γ production in the lung tissues of infected mice was lower at day 1 and higher than SAL mice at day 5 (Fig. 3A). TNF-α production was greater by day 5, but not by day 1, in these mice (Fig. 3B). Conversely, CXCL1 production was greater on both days 1 and 5 post-infection, greater at day 5 compared to day 1 (Fig. 3C). Levels of these cytokines were also measured in distal organs, but no significant differences were observed between P. berghei-infected mice and controls at days 1 and 5 (data not shown). At day 1, static lung elastance (Est,L) (Fig.
4A), resistive pressure (ΔP1,L) (Fig. 4B), and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous (ΔP2,L) pressure (Fig. 4C) were significantly greater in P. berghei-infected mice (+36%, 75% and 33%, respectively) compared to SAL mice, and these parameters remained elevated until day 5. These mechanical parameters were lower at day 5 post-infection than at day 1 in infected mice (Est, 27%; ΔP1, 60%; ΔP2, 20%). To evaluate CYTH4 the occurrence of pathological events in distal organs during P. berghei infection, photomicrographs of brain, heart, liver and kidney specimens from mice in the control and severe malaria groups were obtained at days 1 and 5 ( Fig. 5). The brains of P. berghei-injected mice exhibited cortical oedema, glial cell swelling, and congested capillaries, with erythrocytes adhered to the endothelium, causing occlusion, at days 1 and 5. However, an increase in the number of microglial cells was only observed 5 days post-infection ( Fig. 5, Table 1). The hearts of P. berghei-infected mice demonstrated interstitial oedema of the myocardium, which was more marked at day 5 than day 1.