The segment between the Garrison and Oahe dams was divided into f

The segment between the Garrison and Oahe dams was divided into five geomorphic reaches termed: Dam Proximal, Dam-Attenuating, River-Dominated Interaction, Reservoir-Dominated Interaction, and Reservoir. The divisions are based on changes in cross-sectional area,

channel planform, and morphology, which are often gradational. The Dam Proximal reach of the river is located immediately downstream of the dam and extends 50 km downstream. The cross-sectional data and aerial images suggest that the Dam Proximal reach of the river is eroding the bed, banks, and islands (Fig. 5). The ERK inhibitor in vivo standard spatial deviation of cross sectional area for all cross sections on the river in 1946 was 269 m2. All 22 sites examined in the Dam-Proximal

reach (Appendix A) experienced an increase in cross-sectional area that is greater than this natural variability. As an example, Fig. 3A is a typical cross-section in the Dam Proximal reach and has lost 1364 m2 of cross-sectional area between BMS-777607 purchase 1954 and 2007 (Fig. 3A, Eq. (2)). The thalweg elevation at the transect decreased by as much as 1.5 m between 1954 and 2007, evidence that much of the material scoured from the channel in this location came from the bed (Fig. 3A). Laterally, the banks scoured as much as 45 m in other areas. The aerial images shown in Fig. 5A also indicate that most of the islands in the area have eroded away (red areas). The historical aerial photo analysis indicates that the island surface area lost is approximately 35,000 m2. The areal extent of islands in 1999 was 43% of what is was in 1950. The Dam-Attenuating reach

extends from 50 to 100 km C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) downstream of the dam. The islands in this reach are essentially metastable (adjusting spatially but with no net increase or decrease in areal extent). The reach itself has experienced net erosion with respect to the bed and banks, but to a lesser extent than the Dam Proximal reach. Twelve of the 14 cross sections in the Dam-Attenuating reach show an increase in cross-sectional area greater than the 1946 natural variability (269 m2). Fig. 3B is representative of the reach and has had an increase in cross-sectional area of 346 m2. The reach gained a net of 3300 m2 in island area from 1950 to 1999 which represents a 16% increase. All major islands present in 1950 were still present in 1999 with similar geometries and distribution (Fig. 5B). The River-Dominated Interaction reach extends from 100 to 140 km downstream of the dam. This reach is characterized by an increase in islands and sand bars and minimal change in channel cross-sectional area. 4 of the 11 sites have erosion greater than the natural variability (269 m2) and 5 of the 11 sites are depositional. The cross-section in Fig. 3C is typical of this reach and has a relatively small decrease in the cross-sectional area between 1958 and 2007 (25 m2), less than the natural variability. However, the banks widened more than 518 m (Fig. 3C).

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