Therefore, it can modulate ionic flux and rectify ionic transport

Therefore, it can modulate ionic flux and rectify ionic transport current through the nanochannel/nanopore.

These nanodevices acting as rectifier enable the possible applications in single-molecule sensing and separation [7–10]. Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes offer a fast fluid platform. The fluid velocity of a carbon nanotube membrane is 10,000 times faster than the conventional membrane of similar pore size due to atomically smooth graphite core [11, 12]. Moreover, the BMN673 CNT membranes have far more mechanical strength than lipid bilayer films, thus providing an exciting opportunity for chemical separation, drug delivery, and other applications [13, 14]. Carbon nanotube membranes can imitate ion channels with functionalized

molecules acting as mimetic gatekeepers. Chemical functionalization of molecules (biotin [15], phosphorylation [16], and charged dye [17]) at the entrance of the CNT core enables the modest modulation of ionic transportation. Further study had shown that the steric hindrance of gatekeepers at the pore entrance can be controlled with voltage [18]. Negative bias repels the anionic tethered molecules away from the CNT entrance, opening the channel, while positive bias pulls the anionic tethered molecules into the pore, thus closing SN-38 mouse the channel. The voltage-gated carbon nanotube membranes have been successfully applied in drug delivery. CNT membranes enable the programmable delivery of the addictive drug nicotine into the human skin in vitro for abuse treatment [19]. Neutral selleck kinase inhibitor caffeine can also be pumped through CNT membranes via a highly efficient electroosmotic flow that is 100-fold more power efficient compared to conventional materials such as anodized aluminum oxide membranes [20]. To achieve gatekeeper activity on CNT

membranes, there needs to be a high functional density only at the CNT tips or pore entrances [12, 21]. This has been largely achieved with a two-step process, wherein diazonium grafting first creates carboxyl groups at the CNT tips followed by carbodiimide coupling chemistry [17, 22]. Diazonium grafting generates highly reactive radicals that covalently react with the electrode or subsequent organic layer on the surface under mild solvent and temperature conditions [23, 24]. However, it is difficult to control the amount of carboxylate groups on the CNT tip Mirabegron due to polymerization during diazonium grafting [24, 25]. In principle, grafting reaction is self-limiting when an insulating polymer layer stops the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt. However, with ionic functional groups (such as carboxylates), the reaction can proliferate and block carbon nanotubes. Another complication of the diazonium approach is that it generally requires two-step functionalization since the diazonium formation reaction is not compatible with many functional groups that would be required on the gatekeeper.

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