Park H, Chang S, Jean J, Cheng JJ, Araujo PT, Wang MS, Bawendi MG, Dresselhaus MS, Bulovic V, Kong J, Gradečak S: Graphene cathode-based ZnO nanowire hybrid solar cells. Nano Lett 2013, 13:233.CrossRef 31. Choi KS, Park Y, Kim SY: Comparison of graphene oxide with reduced graphene oxide as hole extraction layer in organic photovoltaic cells. J Nanosci Nanotechnol
2013, 13:3282.CrossRef 32. Stefik M, Yum JH, Hua YL, Grätzel M: Carbon–graphene nanocomposite cathodes for improved Co(II/III) mediated dye-sensitized solar cells. J Mater Chem A 2013, 1:4982.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions The work presented here was performed in collaboration of all authors. CL PRN1371 concentration and YL carried out the deposition of CdS layers and solar cell assembling and drafted the manuscript. LW carried out
the XRD and SEM characterization. CW carried out the photovoltaic performance measurements and the preparation of TiO2 nanorod arrays. YC supervised the work and finalized the manuscript. JJ Stattic mouse and LM proofread the manuscript and polished the English language. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent proteolytic enzymes [1, 2]. MMPs can digest extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, and many other proteins, such as proteinases, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and cell receptors and thus regulate their activities. MMP was first identified in 1962 , and since then, other MMPs have been identified. Interestingly, whereas many MMPs are secreted by cells, others are anchored on cellular membranes. Members of
this family play important roles in various cellular processes, such as migration, differentiation, and proliferation. Furthermore, they have been associated with pathophysiologies of various diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. During the progression of atherosclerosis, inflammatory cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes  play critical roles. Monocytes are recruited into atherosclerotic sites and differentiate into macrophages. After excessive lipid uptake, they become foamy cells. Notably, plaque macrophages secrete critical molecules such as MMPs and prothrombotic tissue factor. Then, MMPs Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease destabilize atherosclerotic plaque by degrading extracellular matrix [5, 6]. In addition to the roles in atherosclerosis, MMPs can aid the metastasis of cancer cells [2, 7]. Information about the stability of atherosclerotic plaque is critical for the stratification and management of patients , and BLZ945 chemical structure unfortunately, anatomical imaging modalities, such as CT or MRI, do not provide this type of information. Because MMPs are associated with the stability of atherosclerotic plaque, their visualization will be helpful in the stratification and management of patients.