1A and 1B). Figure 1 A: Experimental scheme for EA treatment in
a neuropathic cancer pain model, B: Neruopathic cancer pain model. EA Treatment EA treatment was applied to the EA group only. A stainless steel needle with 0.3 mm diameter was inserted at a depth of 5 mm into the unilateral acupuncture point ST36 (Zusanli) located 0.5 cm below the fibular head of the hinder leg in mice and stimulated with an intensity of 2 Hz (<3 mA) for 30 min daily. The levels of EA treatment were based on values previously reported [10, 17]. The proximal end was soldered to a wire that was connected to one of the output channels of an electric stimulator, AZD9291 order PG-306 (YoungMok, Japan). As shown Fig. 3, the ST36 (Zusanli) acupoint was located 5 mm below and lateral to the anterior tubercle of the tibia. Electrical stimulation was applied to ST36 point using two outlets via two needles. An electrical pulse with a voltage of 3–5 V, a duration of 0.25 ms and a frequency of 2 Hz was delivered from an EA stimulator. The intensity of stimulation was determined NCT-501 solubility dmso to be minimum voltage to cause moderate muscle contraction. Figure 3 A: EA treatment increased paw withdrawal latency compared to that of the untreated tumor control. Paw withdrawal latency
was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were obtained, in comparison to the normal control group using the student’s t test (* p < 0.05). B: EA treatment
reduced cumulative AR-13324 manufacturer lifting duration of paw compared to untreated tumor control. Cumulative lifting duration of the left hind paws was measured every 2 days until 9 days after inoculation. Statistically significant differences were compared to the normal group using the student’s t test (* p < 0.05). Behavioral Test (Mechanical von Frey test) During a behaviour test, all mice were divided into three groups including a tumor control tuclazepam group (n = 8), EA-treated group (n = 8) and normal group (n = 8). All mice were placed on a wire mesh platform that was fixed in a transparent plexiglass chamber (20 × 10 × 5 cm). This study was performed based on a modified protocol . Behaviour assessment was performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 after tumor inoculation. A series of von Frey hairs was applied from below the wire mesh platform to the plantar surface of the left hind paw. The hind paw withdrawal threshold was determined using von Frey hairs weighing from 0.4 g to 4 g. Behavioural tests using von Frey hair on the hind paw of mice were carried out five times in 5 s intervals. A withdrawal response was considered valid only if the hind paw was completely removed from the wire mesh platform. Spontaneous Pain Test The mice from all three groups were observed for signs of mechanical allodynia as spontaneous pain on days 3, 5, 7 and 9 after tumor inoculation.