Zein is an alcohol-soluble protein existence in corn with propert

Zein is an alcohol-soluble protein existence in corn with properties such as biocompatibility, low water uptake value, high thermal resistance, and good mechanical properties. The main application of zein is in edible coating for foods and pharmaceuticals. Zein exists as small nanosized globules and consists of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acid residues; therefore, it has been applied as a promising carrier system eFT-508 mouse [23, 25, 29]. Polysaccharides, long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monosaccharide units, are another group of biopolymers. Examples of them consist of chitosan, alginate, heparin, hyaluronic acid, pullulan, and dextran. The cationic polyelectrolyte

nature of chitosan provides a strong electrostatic interaction with mucus, negatively charged mucosal surfaces, and other macromolecules such as DNA [32]. Besides,

the presence of primary amine groups in the structure of chitosan caused this biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic biopolymer to be used as an appealing vector for non-viral genes [33]. It is capable of forming stable, small (20 to 500 nm) particles with complex pDNA and its binding efficiency relate to the molecular weight and the degree of deacetylation [25]. It has better protection against DNase degradation and higher biocompatibility compare to polymers such as polyethyleneimine (PEI). The literatures have shown the INCB28060 cell line physicochemical characteristics of chitosan complexes, GSK2245840 such as size, charge, and complexation efficiency with nucleic acid, are affecting factors in overcoming physiological and cellular barriers to gene delivery [34]. The transfection efficiency of chitosan started slower but increased over time with lowering cytotoxity Methane monooxygenase results for in vivo cases. Polysaccharides

and their derivatives are used for biomedical applications due to high stability, biocompatibility, and main of all biodegradability. Three types of celebrated polysaccharide nanoparticles have been identified by cross-linking, polyion complex, and self-assembly [25]. Sometimes, the hybrid of protein and polysaccharide can be used to fabricate nanoparticles for gene delivery. Albumin-chitosan-DNA-based core-shell nanoparticles are investigated for gene delivery objectives. The studies of these nanoparticles showed that they have higher biocompatibility and less toxicity compared to poly-l-lysine (PLL) and PEI. Additionally, their core-shell structure provides two separate parts for gene delivery [31]. Not only natural protein- or polysaccharide-based nanoparticles, but also synthetic polymer nanoparticles have been also paid high attention. Protein-mimicked polypeptide-based nanoparticles are unique features of proteins, and today, a number of them have been synthesized. They have properties such as well-defined composition, monodisperse molecular weight and potential biocompatibility.

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