That is, there does not seem to be an NMDAR antagonist regimen
proven to engage NMDARs equivalently in humans and animals that reliably produces the same cognitive effects in each species. This is likely due to the diverse range of techniques and models used by preclinical researchers, a paucity of research describing pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic relationships of NMDAR antagonist regimens, little capability to measure target engagement, and the lack of harmonized procedures between preclinical and clinical studies. Realizing the potential of the NMDAR hypofunction hypothesis to model cognitive impairment in schizophrenia will require some of these issues to be addressed.
This article is WH-4-023 research buy part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
abnonnalities in brain structures involved in the neurobiology of fear and anxiety have been implicated in the pathophysiology of panic Lonafarnib disorder (PD), relatively few studies have made use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine structural brain abnormalities in PD. We have assessed gray matter volume in 19 PD patients and 20 healthy volunteers using VBM. Images were acquired using a 1.5 T MRI scanner, and were spatially normalized and segmented using optimized VBM. Statistical comparisons were performed using the general linear model. A relative increase in gay matter volume was found in the left insula of PD patients compared with controls. Additional structures showing LDK378 in vivo differential increases were the left superior temporal gyrus, the midbrain, and the pons. A relative gray matter deficit was found in the right anterior cingulate cortex. The insula and anterior cingulate abnormalities may be relevant to the pathophysiology of PD, since these structures participate in the evaluation process that ascribes negative emotional meaning to potentially distressing
cognitive and interoceptive sensory information. The abnormal brain stem structures may be involved in the generation of panic attacks. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) is extremely rare. Various treatment options are currently available, including conservative management, anticoagulation, endovascular stenting, and surgical repair. Herein, we present our experience in the treatment of symptomatic SIDSMA.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 14 consecutive patients with symptomatic SIDSMA between January 2000 and January 2010. All patients had acute onset abdominal pain. The decision to intervene was based on patient symptoms and signs, as well as the morphologic characteristics of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection on computed tomography (CT) angiography. Endovascular stenting (ES) was indicated in patients with severe compression of the true lumen or dissecting aneurysm likely to rupture.