Maximum of 6 plant species each of Acanthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were used for drug preparation, followed by Asclepiadaceae (5), Liliaceae (5), Fabaceae (5), Verbenaceae (5), Caesalpinaceae (4), Cucurbitaceae (4), Euphorbiaceae (4), Solanaceae (3) and Araceae (3). Different parts of plants like leaves, roots, rhizome, flowers, fruits, seeds, are being used for different purposes (Fig. 3). For the herbal
formulations, leaves (39%) this website were the most preferred plant part, followed by fruits and seeds (18%), roots (16%), whole plant (13%), stem bark (11) and latex (3%). Among the drug formulations, paste (39.06%) and decoctions (34.37%) were commonly used over the juice (15.62%) and raw (10.93%). Oral administrations (77%) are generally preferred for most diseases, while external applications (23%)
are prescribed for skin diseases, snake bite and wound healing purposes. In most cases, the rural people of the study area prefer to use single plant species (86.95%) for specific ailments rather than combinations of plants (13.04%). Generally fresh leaves, bark and roots were preferred and in the absence of fresh materials, the dried ones were also prescribed. Hydroxychloroquine research buy It is noticed that the different ethnic/tribal groups living in a distantly located geographical regions possess different dialects, cultures and subsistence
but have common knowledge about certain plant species. For example, usage of Passiflora subpeltata against jaundice is same among Jenu Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba and Mullu Kuruba tribes of study area. This study suggests that they influence each other in the adoption and usage of certain plant species and also specific cultural sensibility towards them. We have reported in our study that similar medicinal plant was used by the healers of the community as used by the healers in different parts of Karnataka. For example usage of root of Tabernaemontana coronaria and leaf latex of Lobelia nicotianaefolia against snake used by the Jenu Kuruba tribal herbal healers is similar to the studies in the NR Pura taluk of Chikmagalore 14; Mullu Kuruba tribe in Wayanad district of not Kerala use Rubia cordifolia to treat skin diseases is same as in the present study. 20 However, herbal medicinal practices vary among different group of people in different regions of India. Same plant used to treat one disorder in one formulation may vary in the far away places. For example Andrographis paniculata used to treat diabetes and intestinal worms by the Kadu Kuruba tribal people in the study area is also found usage against malaria and diarrhoea by the Gond tribe of Bhandara district of Maharashtra.