Energy balance-based category: in this class, the routing protoco

Energy balance-based category: in this class, the routing protocols are proposed from different points of view, but with a uniform objective which is energy balance. When a node is assigned some redundant and repetitive missions what has been assigned to other nodes, the node will consume energy disproportionally and become Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries quickly useless. It appears that Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries energy balance-based methods can also improve the energy efficiency of the sensor nodes.In the rema
Due to the benefits of low cost, rapid deployment, self-organization capability and cooperative data processing, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been proposed as a practical solution for a wide range of applications [1], such as battlefield surveillance, habitat monitoring, intelligent agriculture, home automation, etc.

A typical WSN is composed of a large number of sensor nodes responsible for sensing data and a sink node responsible for collecting and processing data. Since the energy supply for each sensor node is usually extremely limited, energy efficiency is the primary challenge Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of WSNs. Previous research works have indicated that a clustered structure [2,3] and multi-hop routing [4] are essential for better energy efficiency in large scale WSNs.In WSNs, the data traffic follows a many-to-one communication pattern. Nodes closer to the sink tend to carry heavier traffic loads, which will deplete their energy faster [5�C9]. Wadaa et al. [8] argued that by the time nodes closest to the sink deplete their energy, nodes farther away from the sink may still have up to 93% of their initial energy available, assuming all nodes have the same fixed transmission range and nodes are uniformly distributed in the network.

In the literature, this problem is referred as the energy hole problem and a number of studies have been conducted to mitigate its impact on the lifetime of a WSN, including energy-efficient clustering schemes [5,7,10], analysis of the energy hole problem [11,12], nonuniform node distribution strategies [13,14], and utilization of mobile nodes [15].In our previous Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries work, a highly scalable network architecture, named Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC) structure [16], was proposed for the construction of large scale WSNs. Like other multi-hop structures, PMRC also suffers from the energy hole problem.

This issue was alleviated to some extent by the Overlapping Layers (OL) scheme [17], which tends to balance the relay load at the cluster Anacetrapib heads for all layers by overlapping the neighbor layers following a desired overlap range. However, due to the fixed layer boundary and range overlap, the network lifetime of OL-enabled WSN is still limited by those nodes which have exactly one candidate cluster head. To overcome this limit, the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL) scheme [18] was proposed to gradually increase the required minimum overlap between neighbor layers during network lifetime.

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