Emotional/anxiety-related behaviour was assessed using the elevat

Emotional/anxiety-related behaviour was assessed using the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark test. Social behaviour was examined in terms of dyadic interactions between NRG1 mutants and an unfamiliar C57BL6 conspecific in a novel environment. There was no effect of NRG1 genotype on performance in either test of emotionality/anxiety. However, previous reports of hyperactivity in NRG1 mutants were confirmed in both paradigms. In the

test of social interaction, aggressive following was Y-27632 mw increased in NRG1 mutants of both sexes, together with an increase in walkovers in female mutants. These findings elaborate the specificity of the NRG1 phenotype for the social rather than the emotional/anxiety-related domain. They indicate that NRG1 is involved in the regulation of reciprocal social interaction behaviour and thus suggest a putative role for NRG1 in a schizophrenia-related endophenotype. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“It has long-been hypothesized that changes in non-protein-coding genes and the regulatory sequences NCT-501 controlling expression could undergo positive selection. Here we identify 402 putative microRNA (miRNA) target sequences that have been mutated specifically in the human lineage and show that genes containing such deletions are more highly expressed than their

mouse orthologs. Our findings indicate that some miRNA target mutations are fixed by positive selection and might have been involved in the evolution of human-specific traits.”
“Objective: Various studies have shown that short (s)/long (I) polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) might predict treatment outcome to selective

serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between 5-HTTLPR and clinical response to escitalopram treatment in Korean subjects with major depressive disorder. Methods: One hundred Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) and fifteen Korean patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder were evaluated during 8 weeks of escitalopram treatment at a dose of 5-20 mg/day. Patients were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using polymerase chain reaction. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-21) scale during the 8 weeks of treatment. Results: Therapeutic response to antidepressant escitalopram was better in s allele carriers (ss, sl) than in I allele homozygotes (II) at 8 weeks of treatment (OR = 6.24, p = 0.026). The proportion of s allele carriers in responders was higher than that in non-responders (96.6 vs. 85.7%). The percentile decline in HAMD-21 in s allele carriers (59.86 +/- 3.23%) was larger than that in HAMD-21 in I allele homozygotes (43.13 +/- 11.49%; p = 0.029). However, 5-HTTLPR genotypes were not significantly associated with remission (p > 0.05).

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